Agriculture and Food Science Research Collection
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- Publication2010 EFFoST Annual Meeting, Dublin(Elsevier, 2011)The 2010 Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) took place in Dublin, Ireland on 10-12 November. Twenty four papers and 275 posters were presented, and there were 290 attendees. The theme of the Conference was 'Food and Health'. There were five oral sessions: (i) Nutrition and Health; (ii) Functional Foods [a]; (iii) Functional Foods [b]; (iv) Processing for Healthy Foods, and (v) Food Safety and Health. The poster sessions corresponded to these themes.
- Publication2011 EFFoST Annual Meeting, Berlin(Elsevier, 2012)The 2011 European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) conference took place in Berlin, Germany on 9-11 November. The conference programme centred on food process-structure-function relationships and the content was closely allied to the research agenda of the European Technology Platform: Food for Life. There were 16 keynote/review lectures, 38 other oral presentations, 260 posters, and close to 300 attendees. The oral sessions corresponded to the process-structure-function themes as did the poster sessions.
- Publication3D printing of PEEK reactors for flow chemistry and continuous chemical processing(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020-04)
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Chemically resistant parts for flow chemistry, with integrated mixing elements have been produced using the 3D printing process of fused filament fabrication, from poly(etheretherketone). Poly(etheretherketone) has greater chemical resistance than common fused filament fabrication materials such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polypropylene, or even high-performance plastics like poly(etherimide), in addition to having superior thermal resistance and excellent mechanical strength. Printed reactors were demonstrated to be suitable for liquid–liquid extraction and flow chemistry and to be capable of withstanding pressures of at least 30 bar allowing superheated solvents to be used. Burst tests in simple geometries of 20 minute duration have indicated that increased operating pressures of up to 60 bar could be accommodated in future reactor designs. The ability to use fused filament fabrication for these reactors allows highly customisable, cost effective flow reactors and equipment to be fabricated on relatively inexpensive benchtop scale printers. X-ray microcomputed tomography was utilised to non-invasively image and verify the internal structure of the prints to ensure fidelity in reactor fabrication. This non-invasive method of equipment validation shows potential in helping to demonstrate regulatory compliance for bespoke additively manufactured components, for example in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing where the methods and printer used in this work should be sufficient to produce, (continuous) manufacturing scale equipment. 366Scopus© Citations 29
- PublicationAcidification of Water Used in Glasshouses(An Foras Talúntais, 1982)The pH of water used for irrigating and feeding tomatoes in glasshouses should be lowered to 5.5-6.0 in order to reduce the incidence of blocked trickle-irrigation nozzles and to prevent a high pH developing in the growing medium as the season progresses. This pH range is also suitable for nutrient solutions used in nutrient-film and rockwool growing systems. Results of acidification tests showed that 68, 205 and 268nml of 72% HNO3 were sufficient to reduce the pH of 1000l of water to 6.0 in three samples with initial pH values of 7.30, 7.35 and 8.30. respectively. This shows that acid must be added carefully by the grower as relatively small amounts have a large effect on the pH of the water. The pH of acidified water samples rose only slightly up to 48h after acidification, but after 6 days the increase was more considerable. This suggests that the target pH should be reduced by 0.5 of a pH unit to allow for this change.
- PublicationAdded Value Herring Products(Teagasc, 1993)
; ;Traditional marinated herring products in Ireland are usually 'Rollmops' or 'Bismark'. They have an acid/salt flavour. However, in continental Europe, the trend is towards milder and sweeter marinated products. A Joint project between The National Food Centre and An Bord Iascaigh Mhara has investigated the development of a selection of German-style products, i.e., mild herring marinades in gourmet sauces, aimed at local and European markets. The marinated herrings were also evaluated as components of salads. A range of products (free from preservatives) has now been prepared and the technology and formulations for their production are currently being introduced to interested Irish food companies. 80
- PublicationAgriBenchmark: Benchmarking Sustainable Nutrient Management on Irish Farms. EPA Research Report No.274(Environmental Protection Agency, 2019-04-18)
; ; ; ;AgriBenchmark explored the possibilities for benchmarking of nutrient management performance on Irish farms. Teagasc National Farm Survey (NFS) data (2008–2015; 1446 farms) was used to characterise and explore the potential for improvement of farm nutrient management performance and resultant aspects of environmental and economic sustainability through the derivation of three key performance indicators. 306
- PublicationAlgal Polysaccharides. Innovative Extraction Technologies, Health Benefits and Industrial Applications(Taylor & Francis, 2019-07-12)
; ; ;Microalgae are largely exploited due to their rich composition in high-value compounds such as carbohydrates. Algal polysaccharides and oligosaccharides offer enormous potential industrial applications due to their wide range of biological activities. The production and chemical structure of microalgal carbohydrates will vary depending on the species or strains and the culture conditions (i.e. temperature, pH and light). Moreover, microalgae are able to accumulate and/or excrete intra- and extra-cellular carbohydrates. Due to the wide heterogeneity of these compounds, the extraction and purification processes are challenging stages in the downstream processing of microalgal polysaccharides. This chapter focuses on the extraction and purification approaches to obtain carbohydrates from microalgae together with the biological activities and potential industrial applications of these compounds. 248Scopus© Citations 1
- PublicationAllolobophra cupulifera in Ireland: first records for the British Isles(Megadrilogica, 2002-10)
;The lumbricid earthworm species Allolobophora cupulifera Tetry, 1937 is reported for the first time from the island of Ireland. It was found at three locations in low-lying, alluvial grassland habitats known as callows along the River Barrow, in counties Kilkenny and Carlow. 47
- PublicationAlternative management of Ireland’s western peatland forests to adapt to climate change and an expanding bioeconomy(2019-12-06)
; ;The inherent factor of poor site productivity in western peatland forests combined with the reduction in management intensity from increased environmental considerations has brought some new challenges into forest management. Our study investigates new, alternative forest management models in the area chosen for this study, Cloosh forest, Co. Galway, to assess how these forests should be managed under future impacts of climate change and dynamic timber prices due to an expanding bioeconomy, and to quantify the impact this will have on forest ecosystem services (ES). 38
- PublicationAmplification success of multilocus genotypes from feathers found in the field compared with feathers obtained from shot birds(Wiley-Blackwell, 2012-01)
; ; ;Effective DNA extraction methods from bird feathers have facilitated non-invasive sampling, leading to the suggestion that feathers are a great source for genetic studies. However, few studies have assessed whether all feathers can be used or provide equal numbers of useful templates. In this study, feathers collected in various ways from Red Grouse Lagopus lagopus were examined to establish the quality of DNA extracted. Individual samples were classified into two categories according to whether they were collected from shot birds or found in the field. DNA was extracted from all samples and genotyped at 19 microsatellite loci. PCR products were analysed on a MegaBACE 1000. A total of 93% of the ‘shot’ category produced a genotype that was considered successful (i.e. 15 of 18 loci) and 23% of the ‘collected’ category produced successful genotypes under the same criteria. There was a significant difference between shot and collected samples in genotyping success and the observed number of missing loci. Recommendations and best practices are discussed along with the utility of bird feathers as a source of DNA for population and conservation biology. 630Scopus© Citations 18
- PublicationAnalysing Performance Characteristics of Biomass Haulage in Ireland with GPS, GIS and Fuel Diagnostic Tools(MDPI, 2015-10-22)
; ;In Ireland, truck transport by road dominates and will remain the main transportation mode of biomass. Cost efficiency and flexibility of forest transport can be typically improved by optimising routes. It is important to know every process and attributes within the workflow of roundwood transport. This study aimed to analyse characteristics of timber trucking in Ireland, and to estimate the least-cost route for the distribution of biomass with the use of geographic information systems (GIS). Firstly, a tracking system that recorded the truck’s movements and fuel consumption was installed. A total of 152 trips were recorded, routes were chosen by the truck driver. The recorded information was used to analyse the distances and times travelled loaded and unloaded per road class, breaks, loading and unloading times as well as fuel consumption. Secondly, the routes taken by the truck where compared with routes created using Network Analyst (NA), an extension of ArcGIS. Four scenarios based on route selection criteria were selected: shortest distance (S1), shorted time (S2), and prioritising high-class roads with shortest distance (S3) and time (S4). Results from the analysis of the tracking system data showed that driving both loaded and unloaded occupied on average 69% of the driver’s working shift; with an average time driving loaded of 49%. The travel distance per trip varied from 112 km and 197 km, with the truck driver using mostly national and regional roads. An average 2% of the total distance and 11% of the total time was spent driving on forest roads. In general, the truck’s speed recorded on the different road classes was on average 30% lower than the legal maximum speed. The average fuel consumption was 0.64 L/km. In terms of the route comparison, the driving directions from the truck routes coincided with 77% of the directions of the routes based on shortest driving time (S2 and S4). All the routes chosen by the driver had 22% longer distance than the routes in S1 (shortest distance). The routes selected based on shortest distance (S1 and S3) had the longest travelling time, approximately 19% more than the ones taken by the truck and 30% more than S2 and S4. The average running cost for the truck was 0.83 €/km. Choosing the shortest distance routes (S1 and S3) not only implies reducing travelling costs but also a reduction of CO2 emissions by 12% in comparison to routes in S2 and S4. However, when selecting the routes, travel time can be a much more crucial parameter to analyse rather than distance in terms of transportation costs. Choosing the routes generated in scenario S2 over S1 implied an increase in distance by 12% but a decrease in time of 30%. Less driving time translates into better driving conditions across higher classes or roads; less wear and tear of trucks; and lesser fuel used. It also complies with local authorities preferences of having timber trucks move on higher road types in order to minimise the expenses associated with road maintenance. 592Scopus© Citations 9
- PublicationAnalysis of bed agglomeration during gasification of wheat straw in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier using mullite as bed material(Elsevier, 2014-03)
; ; ; ;The quantity and composition of the ash content of straw poses technical challenges to its thermal conversion and have been widely reported to cause severe ash sintering and bed agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification. Literature indicates that a combination of reactor design and bed material measures is required to avoid defluidisation at temperatures above 800 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy this study investigated the initial agglomeration of a mullite bed during the gasification of wheat straw in a small scale, air blown bubbling fluidised bed. The results show that the temperatures along the height of the bed converge prior to any marked drop in pressure or heating of the lower freeboard. This convergence was seen to occur at temperatures close to 750 °C in repeated gasification experiments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicates coating-induced agglomeration caused by the reaction of alkali metals with silica. Scanning electron microscopy under high magnification revealed a layered structure to the agglomerates, where ash particles are subsumed into a fused material. This suggests the formation of agglomerates by the three step agglomeration process postulated by other authors. Analysis of indices used to predict agglomeration on the basis of a fuel's ash content and composition indicates that the Alkali Index is the most accurate, successfully predicting agglomeration for 7 of the 9 fuels where agglomeration was observed. 913Scopus© Citations 27
- PublicationAnalysis of Glasshouse Soils on a Volume Basis Without Drying the Sample(An Foras Talúntais, 1970)pH, K and SC readings from glasshouse soils were found to be almost independent of the moisture content provided the sample for analysis was taken on a volume basis. Cylindrical containers were most suitable for measuring volumes of soil for analyses. Different results were obtained when five operators carried out analyses for K on wet peat samples taken on a volume basis. The precision of all operators was excellent (CV ≤ 5.3%). The different results were due to variations in the technique of filling the container.
- PublicationAnalysis of N2O emissions and isotopomers to understand nitrogen cycling associated with multispecies grassland swards at a lysimeter scale(2020-05-08)
; ; ; ; ;Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas associated with nitrogen fertiliser inputs to agricultural production systems. Minimising N2O emissions is important to improving the efficiency and sustainability of grassland agriculture. Multispecies grassland swards composed of plants from different functional groups (grasses, legumes, herbs) have been considered as a management strategy to achieve this goal. 72
- PublicationAnalysis of Tomato Fruit: Effect of Frozen Storage on Compositional Values- an Inter-laboratory Study(Wiley, 1983)
; ;Tomato culturing trials often result in too many samples to analyse while fresh. The most common technique is to seal them in containers and preserve them by deepfreezing for subsequent analysis. An inter-laboratory study has been made of the effect of freezing for various lengths of time on a number of compositional factors. Tests for soluble solids, dry matter content, electrical conductivity, titratable acidity, potassium, pH, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total N and Vitamin C in frozen tomatoes indicated that the levels of most of these constituents remained relatively constant during frozen storage and were similar to values found in the fruit prior to freezing. When the tomatoes were frozen as a purée it was essential to thaw them in the stabilising/ extracting solution used in the Vitamin C analytical procedure, otherwise there was a large loss in ascorbic acid. 623
- PublicationAnalytical Values for Mushroom Compost, Poultry Deep Litter and Poultry Slurry Samples over a 5 Year Period 1978-82(An Foras Talúntais, 1984)
;Data are presented on the analysis of mushroom compost, poultry deep litter and poultry slurry samples over the period 1978-82. There was no difference in the dry matter (DM) content of compost samples between years either at time of filling or spawning, with mean values of 32 and 29%, respectively. The DM values were highest in the April-September period. Nitrogen (N) values were not different on an annual or quarterly basis, with means of 2.21 and 1.99%, on a DM basis, at spawning and filling respectively. Ammonia (NH3) content did vary from year to year and values were highest in the October-March period; mean values on a DM basis were 0.07 and 0.24 at spawning and filling, respectively. Results for 3 years on deep poultry litter manure showed no differences between years or quarters. Mean values for DM, N and NH3 were 55, 2.86 and 1.42%, respectively. Only a small number of poultry slurry samples were tested and the results showed it to be a variable material. 64
- PublicationAngling in Ireland: an enduring passion of more than 60 years(University College Dublin. School of Agriculture & Food Science, 2015-05)This e-booklet summarises the content of an angling diary kept by Ronan Gormley for more than 60 years. Dating from 1952 to the time of writing (May 2015) it contains records of fish caught in this period. The decision to put pen to paper was twofold. Firstly, to inspire young anglers to keep a diary which in later years they will treasure as it vividly reminds them of special days spent angling in river, lake, sea and other waterways. Secondly, to highlight the decline in catch size and number of species over the years and the necessity to increase positive action to halt or slow down this decline.
- PublicationAntibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries(Co-Action, 2013-12)
; ; ; ;Background: The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria. Methods: To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Results: Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ]1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ]1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources. Conclusion: We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota. 384
- PublicationAntimicrobial Resistance in Wildlife: Implications for Public Health(Wiley, 2015-11)
; ; ;The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in natural environments is a major concern with serious implications for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AMR Escherichia coli (E. coli) in wild birds and mammalian species. Thirty faecal samples were collected from each of the following wildlife species: herring gulls (Larus argentatus), black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), lesser black-back gulls (Larus fuscus), hybrid deer species (Cervus elaphus x Cervus nippon) and twenty-six from starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). A total of 115 E. coli isolates were isolated from 81 of 146 samples. Confirmed E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents by disc diffusion. In total, 5.4% (8/146) of samples exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes. The phylogenetic group and AMR-encoding genes of all multidrug resistance isolates were determined by PCR. Tetracycline-, ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant isolates were the most common resistant phenotypes. The following genes were identified in E. coli: blaTEM, strA, tet(A) and tet(B). Plasmids were identified in all samples that exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes. This study indicates that wild birds and mammals may function as important host reservoirs and potential vectors for the spread of resistant bacteria and genetic determinants of AMR. 543Scopus© Citations 75
- PublicationThe Application of Freeze-Chill Technology to Ready-To-Eat Meal Components(The Society for engineering in agricultural, food and biological systems, 2002)
; ; ;Freeze-chilling involves freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. A number of ready-to-eat meal components have been studied for their suitability for freeze chilling including, potatoes, carrots, green beans, broccoli, salmon and white sauces. In general, sensory analysis showed that freeze-chilled products were similar in quality to their chilled or frozen counterparts. There were some differences between the freeze-chilled and chilled products in instrumental texture assessment and centrifugal drip loss due to cell damage arising from the freezing step. A freezing rate study was carried out to determine if more rapid freezing could improve texture and drip. Mashed potato was frozen at -30, -60 or -90°C to an internal temperature of -25°C, stored at -25°C for 4 days and then stored at chill temperature (4°C) for a further 4 days. No difference was found in sensory acceptability between any of the treatments. Drip loss was tower (P<0.001) in the chilled mashed potato and decreased with decreasing freezing temperature in the freeze-chilled mashed potato. Freeze-chilling led to a finer texture (P<0.001) than chilling alone but the texture softened (P<0.01) with decreasing freezing temperature. Freeze-chilled foods are potentially more at risk to temperature abuse than chilled products due to the increased amounts of drip water arising from the freezing/thawing steps. A trial was carried out on the effects of different storage temperatures on the quality and safety of freeze-chilled mashed potato. No difference in microbial levels was detected between chill and freeze-chill at any storage temperature but storage time and temperature had effects on total viable counts in both chilled and freeze-chilled products. 115