Veterinary Medicine Research Collection
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Browsing Veterinary Medicine Research Collection by Type "Book Chapter"
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- PublicationBrain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Treatment Option for Retinal Degeneration(Springer, 2018-05-03)
; ; ; ; ;This review discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for retinal degeneration. BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) and NT-4/NT-5 belong to the neurotrophin family. These neuronal modulators activate a common receptor and a specific tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptor. BDNF was identified as a photoreceptor protectant in models of retinal degeneration as early as 1992. However, development of effective therapeutics that exploit this pathway has been difficult due to challenges in sustaining therapeutic levels in the retina. 186Scopus© Citations 13
- PublicationComparative Mycobacteriology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex(CAB International, 2015)
;The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is a group of highly genetically related pathogens that cause tuberculosis (TB) in mammalian species. However, the very name of the complex underlines the fact that our knowledge of these pathogens is dominated by studies on the human pathogen, M. tuberculosis. Of course this is entirely justified; M. tuberculosis is a major global pathogen that exacts a horrendous burden in terms of mortality and morbidity so it is appropriate that it is the cornerstone of the complex. In the same way as M. tuberculosis is the best studied human tubercle bacillus, our knowledge of the animal-adapted strains has been dominated by studies with M. bovis. Again, given the economic importance of bovine TB and the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans, this is entirely expected. However, taking M. tuberculosis and M. bovis as the human- and animal-adapted poles¿of the complex, our focus on these pathogens to the exclusion of others members has restricted, and potentially skewed, our understanding of diversity, virulence and host adaptation within the MTBC. Referring to Theobald Smith above, have we really exploited comparative studies of the tubercle bacilli to their full potential, or have we regarded the MTBC as merely M. tuberculosis plus some animal pathogens of lesser import? Herein we discuss our current understanding of the make-up of the MTBC, focussing on comparisons of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis as the exemplar human- and animal-adapted strains, and look to what studies of these pathogens can teach us about the evolution of the MTBC specifically and the emergence of host adaptation in pathogens in general. We also speculate on how our current focus on M. tuberculosis and M. bovis may have hindered our appreciation of fundamental concepts such as virulence, evolution and host adaptation of the tubercle bacilli. 838
- PublicationMacroalgae for Functional Feed Development: Applications in Aquaculture, Ruminant and Swine Feed Industries(NOVA science publishers, 2017-04)
; ;Plant and animal derived products are the main ingredients currently used by the feed industry to produce concentrate feed. There is a need of novel feed ingredients to meet the demand of high quality products by the aquaculture, ruminant and swine production systems, together with the challenge of implementing new sustainable and environmentally friendly processes and ingredients demanded by the modern society. Macroalgae are a large and diverse group of marine organisms that are able to produce a wide range of compounds with unique biological properties. This chapter discusses the incorporation of macroalgae or macroalgal derived ingredients as a source of both macro-nutrients (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides and fatty acids) and micro-nutrients (i.e., minerals and pigments) for animal feed production. The biological health benefits of the macroalgal ingredients beyond basic nutrition for the development of functional feed in the aquaculture, the ruminant and the swine sectors are also discussed together with the industrial challenges of its application. 1291
- PublicationNew Breeding Strategies in Organic Dairy Farming(Nova Science, 2018-01)
; ; ; ;The selection of an appropriate breed in dairy farms will have a huge influence on the animals’ welfare and production. This is especially noticeable in animal production systems that aim to maximize the use of on-farm resources (low-input production), i.e., organic farms. The animal production in organic farming systems focuses on maximizing the utilization of forage and improving the animals’ health and welfare, while reducing the application of drugs routinely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases in the conventional farms. Thus, the selection of animals adapted to these harsh farming conditions is essential for the success of an organic farm. However, the current animal breeding strategies adopted by the farmers do not differ between the intensive and the organic animal production systems; i.e., the Holstein-Friesian is the most commonly used breed in the organic and intensive dairy farms, despite the poor production and adaptability of these animals to the organic production systems. Recent studies showed that animals bred to produce high milk yields in the conventional systems are not capable to adapt to pasture-based systems. Cattle breeding strategies based on the selection of the animals for functional traits, or the efficiency of the cows to use scarce resources (inputs), could be a good strategy when selecting animals for organic farms. This chapter analyzes the animal breeding strategies currently performed in the organic farms, and discusses the novel strategies and animal breeds that could potentially benefit different organic dairy farming systems, including multifunctional farms. 273