Electrical and Electronic Engineering Research Collection
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Browsing Electrical and Electronic Engineering Research Collection by Type "Review"
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- PublicationThe Active Electrode in the Living Brain: The Response of the Brain Parenchyma to Chronically Implanted Deep Brain Stimulation Electrodes(Oxford University Press, 2019-02)
;BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation is an established symptomatic surgical therapy for Parkinson disease, essential tremor, and a number of other movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. The well-established foreign body response around implanted electrodes is marked by gliosis, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. However, how this response changes with the application of chronic stimulation is less well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To integrate the most recent evidence from basic science, patient, and postmortem studies on the effect of such an "active"electrode on the parenchyma of the living brain. METHODS: A thorough and in-part systematic literature review identified 49 papers. RESULTS: Increased electrode-tissue impedance is consistently observed in the weeks following electrode implantation, stabilizing at approximately 3 to 6 mo. Lower impedance values are observed around stimulated implanted electrodes when compared with unstimulated electrodes. A temporary reduction in impedance has also been observed in response to stimulation in nonhuman primates. Postmortem studies from patients confirm the presence of a fibrous sheath, astrocytosis, neuronal loss, and neuroinflammation in the immediate vicinity of the electrode. When comparing stimulated and unstimulated electrodes directly, there is some evidence across animal and patient studies of altered neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation around stimulated electrodes. CONCLUSION: Establishing how stimulation influences the electrical and histological properties of the surrounding tissue is critical in understanding how these factors contribute to DBS efficacy, and in controlling symptoms and side effects. Understanding these complex issues will aid in the development of future neuromodulation systems that are optimized for the tissue environment and required stimulation protocols. 193Scopus© Citations 7
- PublicationBook Review - Kieran Healy, Data Visualization: A Practical Introduction(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-06-26)With “Data Visualization: A Practical Introduction”, Kieran Healy delivers a hands-on masterclass in building effective data graphics using the ggplot package for the R language. While the implied audience is researchers in the social sciences, there is a lot of practical wisdom here for anyone who works with numerical data. This book treats both the theoretical principles of effective data visualisation design (in the mode of Edward Tufte, Stephen Few, Alberto Cairo and others) as well as concrete guidance on how to integrate such wisdom into a slick data analysis workflow in the R ecosystem. This practitioner-oriented approach is a very welcome addition to the literature: by covering both the whys and hows of data visualisation, this single volume swiftly equips researchers to build compelling graphics from their numerical data.
355Scopus© Citations 2