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- PublicationIntimacy and Vulnerability among Young Men of Colour who have Sex with Men: An Ethnographic Approach to Social Networks and Public Venues(University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2015)This paper shows the symbolic and structural vulnerabilities that Young Men of Colour who have Sex with Men (YMCSM) confront in their everyday lives. Through the analysis of social interactions in public spaces, this paper shows some of the hidden risks that these young men face, and how these situations increases their vulnerability to HIV infection. Four situations are described as particularly risky for YMCSM: drug use, inter-generational sexual interactions, homelessness and sex work, and stigma and symbolic violence associated with their sexual orientation. This paper is based on participant observation and focus groups in several public venues in New York City. It provides insights into the different social networks and the strategies these young men use to confront the dual experience of discrimination as sexual minorities and as people of colour.
- PublicationDiscrimination on the ground of religion or belief in Ireland(University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2012-08)This paper focuses on discrimination on the ground of religion or belief in Ireland. It is based on the analysis of academic sources, secondary data including Irish legislation related to religion; reports published by NGOs and governmental organisations; information from the Census 2011; and media reports and coverage. The Census 2011 shows that Ireland remains a country with a predominant majority who identify themselves as Catholics. There have been important social and cultural changes in Ireland over the last decades. Irish Catholics no longer have the same devotion to the Church that their parents had, and there are many important changes taking place in the State, the media, the public sphere and civil society towards religion. This report shows that despite these changes, the influence of the Catholic Church in Ireland and specifically in the area of education is still significant. The Catholic Church owns and runs the vast majority of primary and secondary schools in Ireland, and has the right, as do other religious groups, to impose its religious ethos in these institutions due to a specific exemption in Irish Equality legislation. This report describes some key policies and initiatives taking place in Ireland that could contribute to the development of a more plural and diverse society.
- PublicationThe labour market and LGBT discrimination in Ireland(University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2010-01)As recently as 1993, homosexuality was illegal in Ireland. Equality legislation prohibits both direct and indirect discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in both the private and public sectors, in work and employment. A key exception in relation to the situation of LGBT people in the labour market is the clause in the Employment Equality Act 1998, Section 37(1), which allows religious organisations, medical institutions and educational institutions an exemption on employment grounds. If such an organisation argues that in order to maintain their ‘religious ethos’ or prevent their religious ethos from being undermined then it is not illegal under section 37 for them to discriminate. There is very little existing research that deals specifically with the situation of LGBT people in the labour market in Ireland. This report presents an overview of the role of social partners, NGOs, equality bodies and other stakeholders in promoting the rights of LGBT workers. Another important aspect that masks the real picture of discrimination in the labour market is the fact that many LGB people are not “out” in their workplace, which reinforces their “invisibility” in the labour market. “Coming out” in the workplace is not an option for all LGBT workers. Many of them are afraid of experiencing the negative consequences that disclosing their sexual orientation might generate for their professional careers and general wellbeing at work.
- PublicationMigrants and racial minorities in the labour market in Ireland(University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2010-09)This report analyses the situation of migrant workers and ethnic minorities in Ireland over the post-economic boom period. From the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced extraordinary economic growth and this brought with it an unprecedented increase in the migrant population. As a result of the economic crisis, the total number of migrants coming to Ireland has fallen dramatically. However, despite this situation, Ireland is likely to remain a multicultural society and ethnic diversity and immigration have become an important issue in the everyday lives of people living in Ireland. This report demonstrates that not all migrants in Ireland experience the same situation of marginalization and vulnerability. Migrant status is not isolated from other factors such us nationality, race and language. Those most at risk of discrimination are black migrants and those from non-English speaking countries. There is evidence that the current recession and the sharp fall in employment has created racial tensions and reinforced racism and discrimination against migrants. Racial/ethnic minorities constitute the main group reporting discrimination in Ireland. Non-Irish nationals are more than twice as likely as Irish nationals to report discrimination in the work place and when looking for work.
- PublicationOlder people and age discrimination in the Irish labour market(University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2011-01)This report presents an overview of the situation of older people in the labour market using the findings of recent research as well as information gathered from a variety of sources and organisations concerned with age and older persons and the Irish labour market. Compared to other EU countries, Ireland has a relatively young population and the ageing process will take place later than in the rest of Europe. However older people constitute one of the most vulnerable groups in Irish society. For instance, life expectancy for older people in Ireland is the lowest in Europe falling below the EU average for both males and females. The high prevalence of disability among older people illustrates the necessity for comprehensive policies towards this population that tackles their different needs and situations. Additionally, there are important employment barriers for older workers due to ageism that is deeply rooted in Irish society. In terms of gender, older women are more at risk of poverty than their male peers. The unequal distribution of care work between women and men illustrates the fact that in Irish society women continue to provide the majority of unpaid care work. This report analyses a range of key aspects of the situation of older people in the labour market. From media representations and public opinion to Government initiatives and the role that NGOs, civil society and the business sector play.