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- PublicationTime-Lapse Monitoring of Moisture Induced Landslide Using Surface Waves at Hollin Hill Landslide Obsevatory(European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 2021-09-01)For about fifteen years, the Hollin Hill site has been used as a landslide research site to test different geophysical characterization and monitoring methods, to assess temporal and spatial stability, and the following methods are regularly evaluated on site: ERT resistivity mapping (Chambers et al. 2010, Uhlemann et al. 2017), self-potential methods SP (Chambers et al. 2008), more recently seismic refraction tomography SRT (Whiteley et al. 2020, Uhlemann et al. 2016). The dynamics and ongoing subsurface processes of the Hollin Hill landslide are therefore relatively well described in literature (Whiteley at al. 2019a). Seismic methods based on characterization of P-wave (Vp) and S-waves (Vs) propagation and in particular on Vp /Vs ratio are commonly used in a landslide context (Grandjean et al. 2009, Mainsant et al. 2012). Since mid-2000, methodological improvements have led to increased routine use of dispersion inversion of Vs in hydrological applications (Pasquet et al. 2015; Dangeard et al. 2016) and in geotechnical applications (Donohue et al. 2011, Bergamo et al. 2016). This abstract therefore discusses current geophysical research to monitor seasonal variations using surface waves content (Rayleigh waves) from SRT acquisitions, in the context of moisture induced landslide monitoring, at the Hollin Hill Landslide Observatory.
- PublicationThe Application of Distributed Acoustic Sensing for Shallow Marine Investigations – an Intertidal Case Study(European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 2021-09-02)Typically, there is a paucity of geotechnical information available to designers of offshore foundations for marine renewable structures, which often results in highly conservative designs. Recent innovations offshore (e.g. McGrath et al. 2016; Long et al. 2020)) seismic surface wave (SW) measurements have highlighted their potential for providing offshore geotechnical information, thereby reducing design uncertainty. There is also an increasing recognition of the value of these measurements from the geotechnical industry, with Lunne (2013) recommending that measurements of seismic shear wave velocities (Vs) should be standard practice for important offshore site investigations. Vs is related to the small strain shear modulus Gmax, which is a critical input parameter for several applications, including static and dynamic analysis of foundation systems, soil liquefaction analysis and input for advanced constitutive soil models. The main disadvantage of current offshore SW practice is a relatively slow data acquisition procedure, which, in turn reduces the spatial coverage of the approach.
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- PublicationDiffraction imaging of sedimentary basins: An example from the Porcupine Basin(Copernicus, 2021-04-30)iffraction imaging is the technique of separating diffraction energy from the source wavefield and processing it independently. As diffractions are formed from objects and discontinuities, or diffractors, which are small in comparison to the wavelength, if the diffraction energy is imaged, so too are the diffractors. These diffractors take many forms such as faults, fractures, and pinch-out points, and are therefore geologically significant. Diffraction imaging has been applied here to the Porcupine Basin; a hyperextended basin located 200km to the southwest of Ireland with a rich geological history. The basin has seen interest both academically and industrially as a study on hyperextension and a potential source of hydrocarbons. The data is characterised by two distinct, basin-wide, fractured carbonates nestled between faulted sandstones and mudstones. Additionally, there are both mass-transport deposits and fans present throughout the data, which pose a further challenge for diffraction imaging. Here, we propose the usage of diffraction imaging to better image structures both within the carbonate, such as fractures, and below.
- PublicationEfficacy of Seismic Interferometry in Removing Surface Waves from Active Seismic Records(Copernicus, 2021-04-30)While there are seismic techniques which make use of surface waves in imaging the subsurface, there are also those where these types of waves are considered coherent noise. Important examples where the surface waves may significantly degrade the obtained images include different types of reflection seismic surveys (e.g., shallow surveys for engineering, environmental and groundwater investigations, and deep surveys for imaging hydrocarbon reservoirs). In a strongly heterogeneous medium (encountered typically in onshore surveys), the conventional methods for attenuating these waves (such as f-k "velocity" filtering) often do not give satisfactory results.
- PublicationThe state of stress in the shallow crust of the Hikurangi Subduction Margin hangingwall, New Zealand(Copernicus GmbH, 2021-04-30)Knowledge of in situ stress fields is critical for a better understanding of deformation, faulting regime, and earthquake processes in seismically active margins such as the Hikurangi Subduction Margin (HSM), North Island, New Zealand. In this study, we utilize Leak-off Test (LOTs) data, borehole breakout widths measured from borehole image logs, and rock unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) derived from empirical P-wave velocity log relationships to estimate vertical (Sv), minimum (Shmin), and maximum horizontal stress magnitudes (SHmax) and interpret the likely faulting regime experienced in four boreholes (Kauhauroa-2, Kauhauroa-5, Titihaoa-1, and Tawatawa-1). Using the standard Anderson’s stress regime classification, relative stress magnitudes in Kauhauroa-5 at 1200-1700 m depth and Kauhauroa-2 at 1800-2100 m and indicate that the stress state in the shallow crust of the central and northern part of HSM is predominantly strike-slip (SHmax≥Sv≥Shmin) and normal Sv≥SHmax> Shmin respectively. Moving to the offshore, southern HSM a dominant compressional stress regime (SHmax> Shmin >Sv), with some possible strike slip stress states are observed in Titihaoa-1 from 2240-2660 m and Tawatawa-1 from 750-1350 m. The observed normal/strike-slip stress state in Kauhauroa-2 and Kauhauroa-5 is consistent with the average SHmax orientation of 64° ± 18° (NE-SW) determined from borehole breakouts and dominantly NE–SW striking normal faults interpreted from seismic reflection data. The normal/ strike-slip regime in this area suggests that the stress regime here is probably influenced by the effect of the clockwise rotation of the HSM hangingwall associated with oblique Pacific-Australia plate convergence (ENE-WSW). Alternatively, these stress states could be the result of gravitational collapse due to rapid uplift of the subducting plate during the mid-Miocene. The compressional stress regime in the southern HSM in Titihaoa-1 and Tawatawa-1 is in agreement with the SHmax orientations of 148° ± 14° (NW-SE ) and 102° ± 16° (WNW-ESE) obtained from image logs and mapped NE–SW striking reverse faults in this region. This observation suggests that the tectonics here are strongly linked to the subduction of Hikurangi plateau under Australian Plate (NW-SE) or active frontal thrusts in the overriding plate.