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- PublicationAlternative Experimental Models of Ciliary Trafficking and Dysfunction in the Retina(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019)The cilia of cells constituent to the retina are fundamental to vision. Of the ∼250 genes causative of inherited retinal degeneration, 20% mediate functions related to photoreceptor primary cilium formation, structure or function. Primary cilia are sensory and signalling organelles emanating from the plasma membrane of most cells. They regulate a variety of biological processes, including left/right body axis asymmetry, limb patterning, central nervous system development and sensation. Cilia function by forming a specialised region of plasma membrane which concentrates specific signalling components, such as for sonic hedgehog signalling and phototransduction. Here, we review the roles of ciliary signalling and trafficking pathways in retinal biology and disease with a focus on the potential of non-rodent, metazoan experimental models for shedding light on these processes.
- PublicationEvaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors for Primary and Metastatic Uveal Melanoma(MDPI, 2022-08-19)Patients diagnosed with metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) have a poor survival prognosis. Unfortunately for this rare disease, there is no known cure and suitable therapeutic options are limited. HDAC6 inhibitors (HDAC6i) are currently in clinical trials for other cancers and show potential beneficial effects against tumor cell survival in vitro and in vivo. In MUM cells, HDAC6i show an anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in preclinical xenograft models. The use of HDAC6 inhibitors as a treatment option for MUM should be explored further. Therefore, this review discusses (1) what is known about HDAC6i in MUM and (2) whether HDAC6 inhibitors offer a potential therapeutic option for MUM.
- PublicationThe Role of Mitochondria in Optic Atrophy With Autosomal Inheritance(Frontiers Media, 2021-11-15)Optic atrophy (OA) with autosomal inheritance is a form of optic neuropathy characterized by the progressive and irreversible loss of vision. In some cases, this is accompanied by additional, typically neurological, extra-ocular symptoms. Underlying the loss of vision is the specific degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) which form the optic nerve. Whilst autosomal OA is genetically heterogenous, all currently identified causative genes appear to be associated with mitochondrial organization and function. However, it is unclear why RGCs are particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial aberration. Despite the relatively high prevalence of this disorder, there are currently no approved treatments. Combined with the lack of knowledge concerning the mechanisms through which aberrant mitochondrial function leads to RGC death, there remains a clear need for further research to identify the underlying mechanisms and develop treatments for this condition. This review summarizes the genes known to be causative of autosomal OA and the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutations. Furthermore, we discuss the suitability of available in vivo models for autosomal OA with regards to both treatment development and furthering the understanding of autosomal OA pathology.
- PublicationUveal Melanoma Cell Line Proliferation Is Inhibited by Ricolinostat, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor(MDPI, 2022-02-03)Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is characterized by poor patient survival. Unfortunately, current treatment options demonstrate limited benefits. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of ACY-1215, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), to attenuate growth of primary ocular UM cell lines and, in particular, a liver MUM cell line in vitro and in vivo, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. A significant (p = 0.0001) dose-dependent reduction in surviving clones of the primary ocular UM cells, Mel270, was observed upon treatment with increasing doses of ACY-1215. Treatment of OMM2.5 MUM cells with ACY-1215 resulted in a significant (p = 0.0001), dose-dependent reduction in cell survival and proliferation in vitro, and in vivo attenuation of primary OMM2.5 xenografts in zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that ACY-1215 significantly arrested the OMM2.5 cell cycle in S phase (p = 0.0001) following 24 h of treatment, and significant apoptosis was triggered in a time-and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.0001). Additionally, ACY-1215 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in OMM2.5 p-ERK expression levels. Through proteome profiling, the attenuation of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) signaling pathway was linked to the observed anti-cancer effects of ACY-1215. In agreement, pharmacological inhibition of MITF signaling with ML329 significantly reduced OMM2.5 cell survival and viability in vitro (p = 0.0001) and reduced OMM2.5 cells in vivo (p = 0.0006). Our findings provide evidence that ACY-1215 and ML329 are efficacious against growth and survival of OMM2.5 MUM cells.
28Scopus© Citations 4
- PublicationGATD3A, a mitochondrial deglycase with evolutionary origins from gammaproteobacteria, restricts the formation of advanced glycation end products(Springer, 2022-03-21)Background: Functional complexity of the eukaryotic mitochondrial proteome is augmented by independent gene acquisition from bacteria since its endosymbiotic origins. Mammalian homologs of many ancestral mitochondrial proteins have uncharacterized catalytic activities. Recent forward genetic approaches attributed functions to proteins in established metabolic pathways, thereby limiting the possibility of identifying novel biology relevant to human disease. We undertook a bottom-up biochemistry approach to discern evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial proteins with catalytic potential. Results: Here, we identify a Parkinson-associated DJ-1/PARK7-like protein—glutamine amidotransferase-like class 1 domain-containing 3A (GATD3A), with bacterial evolutionary affinities although not from alphaproteobacteria. We demonstrate that GATD3A localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and functions as a deglycase. Through its amidolysis domain, GATD3A removes non-enzymatic chemical modifications produced during the Maillard reaction between dicarbonyls and amines of nucleotides and amino acids. GATD3A interacts with factors involved in mitochondrial mRNA processing and translation, suggestive of a role in maintaining integrity of important biomolecules through its deglycase activity. The loss of GATD3A in mice is associated with accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and altered mitochondrial dynamics. Conclusions: An evolutionary perspective helped us prioritize a previously uncharacterized but predicted mitochondrial protein GATD3A, which mediates the removal of early glycation intermediates. GATD3A restricts the formation of AGEs in mitochondria and is a relevant target for diseases where AGE deposition is a pathological hallmark.
15Scopus© Citations 1