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Now showing 1 - 5 of 239
  • Publication
    Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors for Primary and Metastatic Uveal Melanoma
    Patients diagnosed with metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) have a poor survival prognosis. Unfortunately for this rare disease, there is no known cure and suitable therapeutic options are limited. HDAC6 inhibitors (HDAC6i) are currently in clinical trials for other cancers and show potential beneficial effects against tumor cell survival in vitro and in vivo. In MUM cells, HDAC6i show an anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in preclinical xenograft models. The use of HDAC6 inhibitors as a treatment option for MUM should be explored further. Therefore, this review discusses (1) what is known about HDAC6i in MUM and (2) whether HDAC6 inhibitors offer a potential therapeutic option for MUM.
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  • Publication
    Uveal Melanoma Cell Line Proliferation Is Inhibited by Ricolinostat, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor
    Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is characterized by poor patient survival. Unfortunately, current treatment options demonstrate limited benefits. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of ACY-1215, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), to attenuate growth of primary ocular UM cell lines and, in particular, a liver MUM cell line in vitro and in vivo, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. A significant (p = 0.0001) dose-dependent reduction in surviving clones of the primary ocular UM cells, Mel270, was observed upon treatment with increasing doses of ACY-1215. Treatment of OMM2.5 MUM cells with ACY-1215 resulted in a significant (p = 0.0001), dose-dependent reduction in cell survival and proliferation in vitro, and in vivo attenuation of primary OMM2.5 xenografts in zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that ACY-1215 significantly arrested the OMM2.5 cell cycle in S phase (p = 0.0001) following 24 h of treatment, and significant apoptosis was triggered in a time-and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.0001). Additionally, ACY-1215 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in OMM2.5 p-ERK expression levels. Through proteome profiling, the attenuation of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) signaling pathway was linked to the observed anti-cancer effects of ACY-1215. In agreement, pharmacological inhibition of MITF signaling with ML329 significantly reduced OMM2.5 cell survival and viability in vitro (p = 0.0001) and reduced OMM2.5 cells in vivo (p = 0.0006). Our findings provide evidence that ACY-1215 and ML329 are efficacious against growth and survival of OMM2.5 MUM cells.
      28Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Personalised Medicine for Colorectal Cancer Using Mechanism-Based Machine Learning Models
    (MDPI, 2021-09-15) ;
    Gaining insight into the mechanisms of signal transduction networks (STNs) by using critical features from patient-specific mathematical models can improve patient stratification and help to identify potential drug targets. To achieve this, these models should focus on the critical STNs for each cancer, include prognostic genes and proteins, and correctly predict patient-specific differences in STN activity. Focussing on colorectal cancer and the WNT STN, we used mechanism-based machine learning models to identify genes and proteins with significant associations to event-free patient survival and predictive power for explaining patient-specific differences of STN activity. First, we identified the WNT pathway as the most significant pathway associated with event-free survival. Second, we built linear-regression models that incorporated both genes and proteins from established mechanistic models in the literature and novel genes with significant associations to event-free patient survival. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Clinical Proteomic Tumour Analysis Consortium were used, and patient-specific STN activity scores were computed using PROGENy. Three linear regression models were built, based on; (1) the gene-set of a state-of-the-art mechanistic model in the literature, (2) novel genes identified, and (3) novel proteins identified. The novel genes and proteins were genes and proteins of the extant WNT pathway whose expression was significantly associated with event-free survival. The results show that the predictive power of a model that incorporated novel event-free associated genes is better compared to a model focussing on the genes of a current state-of-the-art mechanistic model. Several significant genes that should be integrated into future mechanistic models of the WNT pathway are DVL3, FZD5, RAC1, ROCK2, GSK3B, CTB2, CBT1, and PRKCA. Thus, the study demonstrates that using mechanistic information in combination with machine learning can identify novel features (genes and proteins) that are important for explaining the STN heterogeneity between patients and their association to clinical outcomes.
      72
  • Publication
    Characterization of the renal cortical transcriptome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in experimental diabetic kidney disease
    Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) reduces albuminuria and the long-term incidence of end-stage renal disease in patients with obesity and diabetes. Preclinical modeling in experimental diabetic kidney disease demonstrates that improvements in glomerular structure likely underpin these findings. Research design and methods In adult male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, we profiled the effect of RYGB on weight and metabolic control as well biochemical, structural and ultrastructural indices of diabetic renal injury. Furthermore, we sequenced the renal cortical transcriptome in these rats and used bioinformatic pathway analyses to characterize the transcriptional alterations governing the renal reparative response to RYGB. Results In parallel with improvements in weight and metabolic control, RYGB reduced albuminuria, glomerulomegaly, podocyte stress and podocyte foot process effacement. Pathway analysis of RYGB-induced transcriptomic changes in the renal cortex highlighted correction of disease-associated alterations in fibrosis, inflammation and biological oxidation pathways. RYGB reversed disease-associated changes in the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily genes that strongly correlated with improvements in structural measures of glomerulopathy. Conclusions Improved glomerular structure in ZDF rats following RYGB is underpinned by pathway level changes, including interruption of the TGF-β-driven early profibrotic programme. Our data provide an important layer of experimental support for clinical evidence demonstrating that RYGB arrests renal damage in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
      65Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Applications of personalised signalling network models in precision oncology
    As our ability to provide in-depth, patient-specific characterisation of the molecular alterations within tumours rapidly improves, it is becoming apparent that new approaches will be required to leverage the power of this data and derive the full benefit for each individual patient. Systems biology approaches are beginning to emerge within this field as a potential method of incorporating large volumes of network level data and distilling a coherent, clinically-relevant prediction of drug response. However, the initial promise of this developing field is yet to be realised. Here we argue that in order to develop these precise models of individual drug response and tailor treatment accordingly, we will need to develop mathematical models capable of capturing both the dynamic nature of drug-response signalling networks and key patient-specific information such as mutation status or expression profiles. We also review the modelling approaches commonly utilised within this field, and outline recent examples of their use in furthering the application of systems biology for a precision medicine approach to cancer treatment.
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