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    Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the European twentieth century NAO-winter climate relationship
    Much of the twentieth century multidecadal variability in the relationship between North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and winter climate over the North Atlantic–European sector can be linked to the combined effects of the NAO and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). Our study documents how different NAO–EA and NAO–SCA combinations influence winter climatic conditions (temperature and precipitation) as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. Using teleconnectivity maps, we find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO–winter-climate relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO, related to a southwestwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO–winter-climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. Our study provides new insights into the causes of spatial and temporal nonstationarity in the climate–NAO relationships, particularly with respect to winter precipitation. Furthermore, interannual variability in the north–south winter precipitation gradient in the UK appears to reflect the migration of the NAO dipole linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. The study also has important implications for studies of the role of the NAO in modulating the wind energy resource of the UK and Ireland, as well as for the selection of locations for terrestrial proxy archive reconstruction of past states of the NAO. Copyright © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society
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