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- PublicationMacroalgae for Functional Feed Development: Applications in Aquaculture, Ruminant and Swine Feed IndustriesPlant and animal derived products are the main ingredients currently used by the feed industry to produce concentrate feed. There is a need of novel feed ingredients to meet the demand of high quality products by the aquaculture, ruminant and swine production systems, together with the challenge of implementing new sustainable and environmentally friendly processes and ingredients demanded by the modern society. Macroalgae are a large and diverse group of marine organisms that are able to produce a wide range of compounds with unique biological properties. This chapter discusses the incorporation of macroalgae or macroalgal derived ingredients as a source of both macro-nutrients (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides and fatty acids) and micro-nutrients (i.e., minerals and pigments) for animal feed production. The biological health benefits of the macroalgal ingredients beyond basic nutrition for the development of functional feed in the aquaculture, the ruminant and the swine sectors are also discussed together with the industrial challenges of its application.
- PublicationTrace metal exposure in different livestock production systemsIndustrial and agricultural activities are associated with environmental pollution as these practices contribute to increase further the concentration of minerals derived from the parent rock, present naturally in the soil. Heavy metals (i.e., arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury) and excessive levels of essential metals (such as copper and zinc) have negative effects on the health of both animals and humans. The exposure of animals to toxic elements or excessive levels of essential minerals could influence greatly the mineral content of different animal derived products for human consumption (i.e., meat, offal and milk) and may affect significantly human health. The exposure of livestock to different minerals varies depending on the animal husbandry practices adopted by the farmers, such as the use of mineral supplements in animals’ feed and the foraging practices of the farm (i.e., grazing, type of soil and forage contamination). This chapter focuses on the influence of different farming practices on the exposure of livestock to toxic and trace elements, emphasising the differences between the intensive and organic farming systems. The relationship between different farming practices and the mineral content of animal derived products, together with the implications of these farming practices for the consumers and environment are also discussed.
- PublicationInfluence of farm type (organic, conventional and intensive) on toxic metal accumulation in calves in NW SpainThe aim of the present study was to determine how accumulation of toxic metals by beef-cattle in NW Spain varies between farms that have markedly different practices (including intensive, conventional and organic management) and to determine possible key factors affecting toxic metal assimilation by cattle. Soil, feed (forage and concentrate) and animal tissues (liver and kidney from 120 calves) were collected from nine farms across NW Spain and were analysed for metals by ICP-MS. Toxic metal concentrations in beef calves were generally low but did vary significantly between farms. There were no consistent patterns of difference in tissue metal concentrations between farms from different regions or between farms with different management practices. Variations in arsenic, cadmium and mercury concentrations in calf tissues were not significantly explained by soil or diet metal concentrations but were significantly and inversely related to the proportion of concentrate in the ration. Higher levels of metal residues in tissues were associated with consumption of low amounts of concentrate and relatively high levels of grazing. Higher toxic metal intake due to grazing is likely to be largely a result of soil ingestion.
- PublicationDeveloping seaweed/macroalgae as feed for pigsMacroalgae are a promising source of nutritional ingredients including proteins, polysaccharides and minerals. The need to increase animal and feed production has increased interest in macroalgae as underutilised resources with promising applications as alternative animal feeds. This chapter summarizes the nutritional attributes of macroalgae in terms of macro and micronutrients as a source of protein and other compounds in pig nutrition. The benefits of macroalgae or macroalgal derived extracts in feed are discussed together with future trends and challenges in the development of effective feed formulations.
- PublicationNew Breeding Strategies in Organic Dairy FarmingThe selection of an appropriate breed in dairy farms will have a huge influence on the animals’ welfare and production. This is especially noticeable in animal production systems that aim to maximize the use of on-farm resources (low-input production), i.e., organic farms. The animal production in organic farming systems focuses on maximizing the utilization of forage and improving the animals’ health and welfare, while reducing the application of drugs routinely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases in the conventional farms. Thus, the selection of animals adapted to these harsh farming conditions is essential for the success of an organic farm. However, the current animal breeding strategies adopted by the farmers do not differ between the intensive and the organic animal production systems; i.e., the Holstein-Friesian is the most commonly used breed in the organic and intensive dairy farms, despite the poor production and adaptability of these animals to the organic production systems. Recent studies showed that animals bred to produce high milk yields in the conventional systems are not capable to adapt to pasture-based systems. Cattle breeding strategies based on the selection of the animals for functional traits, or the efficiency of the cows to use scarce resources (inputs), could be a good strategy when selecting animals for organic farms. This chapter analyzes the animal breeding strategies currently performed in the organic farms, and discusses the novel strategies and animal breeds that could potentially benefit different organic dairy farming systems, including multifunctional farms.
- PublicationThe involvement of metallothionein in hepatic and renal Cd, Cu and Zn accumulation in pigsThis study investigated the involvement of metallothionein (MT) in hepatic and renal cadmium (Cd) accumulation and the interactions of this element with the essential elements copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in pigs receiving diets with or without Cu and Zn supplementation, in intensive and extensive production systems respectively. Animals from intensive systems showed significantly higher Cd concentrations in the liver (83.3 μg/kg wet weight) and kidney (343 μg/kg) than animals from extensive systems (33.2 and 130 μg/kg respectively). Cu (liver 16.9, kidney 5.52. mg/kg) and Zn (82.8 and 29.7. mg/kg) concentrations were also significantly higher in pigs from intensive than in animals from extensive systems (Cu 10.1 and 4.64. mg/kg, Zn 66.2 and 23.1. mg/kg). Pigs from intensive systems showed 50% higher kidney MT concentrations than animals from extensive systems (278 and 183. mg/kg respectively), whereas liver MT concentrations were very similar in the two groups (1696 and 1517. mg/kg respectively). MT concentrations in both the liver and the kidney were strongly dependent on the Zn status of the animal. In the liver neither Cu nor Cd displaced Zn from MT, and the proportion of MT binding sites apparently occupied by Cu and Cd decreased with increasing hepatic MT concentration, despite the fact that both Cu and Cd have higher affinity for MT than Zn. The proportion of MT binding sites occupied by Cu and Cd was also directly related to Zn:Cu ratio in hepatic cells. In the kidney, in contrast, Cu seems able to compete with Zn for MT binding sites, and the proportion of MT binding sites occupied by Cu increased with increasing renal MT concentration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
203Scopus© Citations 6
- PublicationInfluence of Cu supplementation on toxic and essential trace element status in intensive reared beef cattleThe aim of this study is to evaluate if dietary Cu supplementation that leads to a hepatic Cu accumulation over the normal range has an influence on trace element status that could contribute to the pathogenesis of other mineral related disorders. Samples (liver, kidney, spleen, diaphragm and brain) of beef calves receiving typical commercial diets Cu supplemented and non-supplemented were tested for differences in non-essential and essential trace elements determined by ICP-MS. As (kidney and diaphragm), Hg (liver and kidney), and Pb (liver, kidney and spleen) were significantly lower, while Cd residues (liver and kidney) were significantly higher in the Cu supplemented group. Mn and Ni significantly decreased and Mo increased in the brain, and Se (diaphragm) decreased in the Cu supplemented group. These interactions are unknown, and possibly with more than two metals involved as suggested in the case of the ratio Se:Cu in the animals of this study. The possible role of Cu supplementation on the status of certain metals associated to neurological diseases (Mn-Ni) in the brain deserves further investigation. Finally new research on Cu-Se supplementation is necessary to better understand the risk of the animals to suffer from Se deficiency.
- PublicationEssential and toxic trace element concentrations in different commercial veal cuts in SpainThe aim of this study was to evaluate essential and toxic element concentration of ten commercially available veal cuts, together with diaphragm, cardiac muscle and liver tissue from 10 animals of 'Galician Supreme Veal'. Essential trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined by ICP-MS. Essential trace element concentrations ranged from 0.002–55.64 mg/kg between muscles. Toxic element concentrations were very low, and high numbers of samples showed unquantifiable residues of Cd and Pb. Veal cuts including muscles with a high proportion of oxidative slow-twitch fibers (diaphragm and cardiac muscle) showed significantly higher essential trace element concentrations, the lower concentrations being found in veal cuts including glycolytic fast-twitch fibers (eye round). Our results suggest that essential and toxic trace element concentration could be used as a new meat quality parameter, or to add further value to certain products (i.e. livestock reared on extensive systems with high physical activity).
356Scopus© Citations 27
- PublicationToxic and essential metals in liver, kidney and muscle of pigs at slaughter in Galicia, north-west SpainThe aims of the study were to evaluate toxic and essential metal concentrations in meat and offal from pigs in north-west Spain to compare these with reported metal concentrations in pigs in other countries and in cattle in this region, and to relate the observed concentrations to maximum acceptable concentrations. Samples from 63 pigs aged 6 months were randomly collected at slaughter. After acid digestion, levels of metals were determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. As regards the toxic metals, mean concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle were 0.073, 0.308 and 0.009 mg kg-1 fresh weight for cadmium, 0.004, 0.008 and 0.003 mg kg-1 for lead, 0.013, 0.011 and 0.003 mg kg-1 for arsenic, and 0.001, 0.002 and 0.001 mg kg-1 for mercury. These concentrations can be considered low, and in general similar to those reported in similar studies in recent years. In addition, maximum admissible concentrations established by the European Union were not exceeded in any sample. As regards the essential metals, concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle were 14.9, 5.63 and 6.85 mg kg-1 for copper, 81.3, 28.9 and 42.5 mg kg-1 for zinc, 195, 51.6 and 26.5 mg kg-1 for iron; 1.17, 2.51 and 0.656 mg kg-1 for selenium, 3.32, 1.56 and 1.01 mg kg-1 for manganese, 0.023, 0.027 and 0.003 mg kg-1 for cobalt, 0.120, 0.077 and 0.131 mg kg-1 for chromium, 0.009, 0.027 and 0.026 mg kg-1 for nickel, and 1.62, 0.683 and 0.140 mg kg-1 for molybdenum. These concentrations are all within the accepted adequate-safe ranges for this animal species, and in general are in line with those previously reported in the literature.
266Scopus© Citations 70
- PublicationEffect of type of muscle and Cu supplementation on trace element concentrations in cattle meatConsidering that meat is an important source of metals exposure to humans it is important to explore trace element concentrations in different types of muscles. Because of the demonstrated effect of Cu-supplementation on mineral status, the influence of Cu-supplementation was also evaluated. Samples of four different muscles (diaphragm, cardiac, semitendinous and pectoral, n=120) from beef calves receiving typical commercial diets Cu-supplemented (15mg Cu2SO4/kg DM) and non-supplemented were taken and acid digested. The levels of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Sn) and essential (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) elements were analyzed by ICP-MS. The statistical analyzes included two way Anova, post hoc DHS Tukey and Spearman correlations. The most active and less fat containing muscles showed in general the highest essential and the lowest non-essential trace element accumulation. As and Hg muscular residues are indicative of animal exposure, however, in situations of an adequate mineral status, essential trace element concentrations in muscle are irrespective of the mineral status of the animal and could be possibly related to their own particular muscular metabolism. Cu-supplementation significantly reduced As but caused a significant decrease of Se, which could have significance for the animal's health.