Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
  • Publication
    Multibody domain decomposition for parallel processing: a wave-based approach to handling interface dynamics
    For many good reasons there is growing interest in ways to allow parallel processing of multibody dynamics problems. Some recent approaches include “Domain Decomposition” and “Divide and Conquer”. This paper explores a new approach, reported as work in progress, with initial, promising results. The strategy is an extension of work done on wave analysis of lumped systems in another context. In the approach, a larger system is subdivided into smaller subsystems, which are solved in parallel. Interconnection points are boundaries for each. Dynamic coupling across boundaries is handled in terms of transmitted and reflected motion components (or "waves"), in both directions, across the boundaries.
  • Publication
    Development of the Ground Segment Communication System for the EIRSAT-1 CubeSat
    The Educational Irish Research Satellite (EIRSAT-1) is a student-led project to design, build and test Ireland’s first satellite. As part of the development, a ground segment (GS) has also been designed alongside the spacecraft. The ground segment will support two-way communications with the spacecraft throughout the mission. Communication with the satellite will occur in the very high frequency (VHF) and the ultra high frequency (UHF) bands for the uplink and downlink respectively. Different modulation schemes have been implemented for both uplink and downlink as part of the GS system. Uplink incorporates an Audio Frequency Shift-Keying (AFSK) scheme, while downlink incorporates a Gaussian Minimum Shift-Keying (GMSK) scheme. In order for the spacecraft to successfully receive a telecommand (TC) transmitted from the ground station, a framing protocol is required. AX.25 was selected as the data link layer protocol. A hardware terminal node controller (TNC) executes both the AX.25 framing and the AFSK modulation. Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS) framing software was developed to allow data to be accepted by the TNC. A software defined radio (SDR) approach has been chosen for the downlink. GNURadio is software that allows flowcharts to be built to undertake the required signal processing of the received signal, the demodulation of the signal and the decoding of data. This paper provides a detailed account of the software developed for the ground segment communication system. A review of the AX.25 and KISS framing protocols is presented. The GNURadio flowcharts that handle the signal processing and data decoding are broken down and each constituent is explained. To ensure the reliability and robustness of the system, a suite of tests was undertaken, the results of which are also presented.
  • Publication
    Travelling waves in boundary-controlled, non-uniform, cascaded lumped systems
    (Elsevier, 2012-05) ;
    A companion paper considers travelling and standing waves in cascaded, lumped, mass-spring systems, controlled by two boundary actuators, one at each end, when the system is uniform. It first proposes definitions of waves in finite lumped systems. It then shows how to control the actuators to establish desired waves from rest, and to maintain them despite disturbances. The present paper extends this work to the more general, non-uniform case, when mass and spring values can be arbitrary. A special ¿bi-uniform¿ case is first studied, consisting of two different uniform cascaded systems in series, with an obvious, uncontrolled, impedance mismatch where they meet. The paper shows how boundary actuator control systems can be designed to establish, and robustly maintain, apparently pure travelling waves of constant amplitude in either the first or the second uniform section, in each case with an appropriate, partial, standing wave pattern in the other section. Then a more general non-uniform case is studied. A definition of a ¿pure travelling wave¿ in non-uniform systems is proposed. Curiously, it does not imply constant amplitude motion. It does however yield maximum power transfer between boundary actuators. The definition, and its implementation in a control system, involves extending the notions of ¿pure¿ travelling waves, of standing waves, and of input and output impedances of sources and loads, when applied to non-uniform lumped systems. Practical, robust control strategies are presented for all cases.
  • Publication
    Experimental modal analysis of violin and similar thin plates by added point masses
    Novel methods are proposed to measure the modal properties of thin plates, such as free violin plates (prior to assembly), simply and inexpensively, by measuring certain changes when a small mass is added to the resonating plate. Iso-amplitude contours and mode shapes can easily be plotted. Modal mass, stiffness and damping can also be inferred. Underlying theory is developed, and experimental and numerical modelling methods of validation are briefly outlined.
  • Publication
    Wave-like modelling of cascaded, lumped, flexible systems with an arbitrarily moving boundary
    (Elsevier, 2011-06-20)
    This paper considers cascaded, lumped, flexible systems, which may be short and non-uniform, which are driven by an arbitrarily moving boundary. Such systems exhibit vaguely wavelike behaviour yet defy classical wave analysis. The paper proposes novel ways to analyse and model such systems in terms of waves. It presents two new wave models for non-uniform systems, one series and one shunt, defining their component wave transfer functions, and thereby providing a way to define, identify and measure component waves. Features of the models are compared. The series and shunt configurations are mutually consistent and can be combined into a single composite wave model. The models are exact, but elements within them remain arbitrary to some degree, implying slight differences in the wave decomposition of the system. Some good model choices are proposed and explored. Wave speed and wave impedance are briefly considered, as are ways to measure component waves. Implications are discussed.
      1907Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    EIRSAT-1 - The Educational Irish Research Satellite
    The Educational Irish Research Satellite, "EIRSAT-1", is a collaborative space project that aims to build, launch and operate the first ever Irish satellite. The EIRSAT-1 spacecraft is a 2U CubeSat incorporating three novel experiment payloads: GMOD, a gamma-ray detector; EMOD, a thermal management coating demonstration; and WBC, an attitude control algorithm. The spacecraft is currently under construction at University College Dublin and will be delivered to ESA in late 2019.
  • Publication
    Wave-based control of under-actuated flexible structures with strong external disturbing forces
    (Taylor and Francis, 2015-03-18) ;
    Wave-based control of under-actuated, flexible systems has many advantages over other methods. It considers actuator motion as launching a mechanical wave into the flexible system which it absorbs on its return to the actuator. The launching and absorbing proceed simultaneously. This simple, intuitive idea leads to robust, generic, highly efficient, precise, adaptable controllers, allowing rapid and almost vibrationless re-positioning of the system, using only sensors collocated at the actuator-system interface. It has been very successfully applied to simple systems such as mass-spring strings, systems of Euler-Bernoulli beams, planar mass-spring arrays, and flexible three-dimensional space structures undergoing slewing motion. In common with most other approaches, this work also assumed that, during a change of position, the forces from the environment were negligible in comparison with internal forces and torques. This assumption is not always valid. Strong external forces considerably complicate the flexible control problem, especially when unknown, unexpected or unmodelled. The current work extends the wave-based strategy to systems experiencing significant external disturbing forces, whether enduring or transient. The work also provides further robustness to sensor errors. The strategy has the controller learn about the disturbances and compensate for them, yet without needing new sensors, measurements or models beyond those of standard wave-based control.
      286Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Gantry crane control of a double-pendulum, distributed-mass load, using mechanical wave concepts
    (Copernicus GmbH, 2013-07-01) ;
    The overhead trolley of a gantry crane can be moved in two directions in the plane. The trolley is attempting to control the motion of a suspended, rigid-body, distributed mass load, supported by a hook, modelled as a lumped mass, in turn connected to the trolley by a light flexible cable. This flexible system has six degrees of freedom, four variables describing the flexible, hanging load dynamics and two (directly controlled) input variables for the trolley position. The equations of motion are developed and the crane model is verified. Then a form of wave-based control (WBC) is applied to determine what trolley motion should be used to achieve a reference motion of the load, with minimum swing during complex manoeuvres. Despite the trolley's limited control authority over the complex, flexible 3-D dynamics, WBC enables the trolley to achieve very good motion control of the load, in a simple, robust and rapid way, using little sensor information, with all measurements taken at or close to the trolley.
      782Scopus© Citations 27
  • Publication
    Wave-Based Analysis and Control of Lump-Modeled Flexible Robots
    (IEEE, 2007-04)
    Flexible robots are frequently represented by lumped models. In the mechanics of lumped systems, wave concepts have been avoided, for good reasons, generally. In the control of lumped flexible systems, however, wave concepts prove very fruitful. This paper provides a foundation for the wave-based control application by exploring the validity and nature of wave concepts in lumped robotic systems. A new wave-based model of uniform mass-spring systems is proposed and verified. The model is exact but not unique. Useful simplifications and approximations are also presented. The model leads to control strategies for flexible robotic systems that are simple, powerful, robust, and generic. The wave approach also provides a new analysis tool and conceptual framework for lumped dynamic systems.
      546Scopus© Citations 71
  • Publication
    Wave-Echo Control of Lumped Flexible Systems
    (Elsevier, 2006-12-22)
    An elegant, generic solution is presented to the problem of point-to-point control by a single actuator of a remote load through an intermediate flexible system, modelled by a system of lumped masses and springs. It is based on new ways of looking at the problem that respect and exploit the underlying dynamics. Under wide-ranging conditions the strategy allows rapid, almost-vibrationless, precise position control of the load, independently of the order of the system, without the need for a detailed system model or ideal actuator. During the start-up, the system itself reveals to the controller how to terminate the motion, so that the real system also acts as the model for the controller. The scheme is very robust to modelling, actuator and sensor errors. The strategy is presented, with some of the motivating ideas reviewed.
      518Scopus© Citations 34