Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
  • Publication
    Identification of Road Irregularities via Vehicle Accelerations
    A periodic monitoring of the pavement condition facilitates a cost-effective distribution of the resources available for maintenance of the road infrastructure network. The task can be accurately carried out using profilometers, but such an approach is generally expensive. This paper presents a method to collect information on the road profile via accelerometers mounted in a fleet of non-specialist vehicles, such as police cars, that are in use for other purposes. It proposes an optimisation algorithm, based on Cross Entropy theory, to predict road irregularities. The Cross Entropy algorithm estimates the height of the road irregularities from vehicle accelerations at each point in time. To test the algorithm, the crossing of a half-car roll model is simulated over a range of road profiles to obtain accelerations of the vehicle sprung and unsprung masses. Then, the simulated vehicle accelerations are used as input in an iterative procedure that searches for the best solution to the inverse problem of finding road irregularities. In each iteration, a sample of road profiles is generated and an objective function defined as the sum of squares of differences between the ‘measured’ and predicted accelerations is minimized until convergence is reached. The reconstructed profile is classified according to ISO and IRI recommendations and compared to its original class. Results demonstrate that the approach is feasible and that a good estimate of the short-wavelength features of the road profile can be detected, despite the variability between the vehicles used to collect the data.
      472
  • Publication
    Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Behaviour Using an Instrumented Two Axle Vehicle
    Highway structures such as bridges are subject to continuous degradation primarily due to ageing, loading and environmental factors. A rational transport policy must monitor and provide adequate maintenance to this infrastructure to guarantee the required levels of transport service and safety. Increasingly in recent years, bridges are being instrumented and monitored on an ongoing basis due to the implementation of Bridge Management Systems. This is very effective and provides a high level of protection to the public and early warning if the bridge becomes unsafe. However, the process can be expensive and time consuming, requiring the installation of sensors and data acquisition electronics on the bridge. This paper investigates the use of an instrumented 2-axle vehicle fitted with accelerometers to monitor the dynamic behaviour of a bridge network in a simple and cost-effective manner. A simplified half car-beam interaction model is used to simulate the passage of a vehicle over a bridge. This investigation involves the frequency domain analysis of the axle accelerations as the vehicle crosses the bridge. The spectrum of the acceleration record contains noise, vehicle, bridge and road frequency components. Therefore, the bridge dynamic behaviour is monitored in simulations for both smooth and rough road surfaces. The vehicle mass and axle spacing are varied in simulations along with bridge structural damping in order to analyse the sensitivity of the vehicle accelerations to a change in bridge properties. These vehicle accelerations can be obtained for different periods of time and serve as a useful tool to monitor the variation of bridge frequency and damping with time.
      142
  • Publication
    Experimental Investigation of the Detection of Bridge Dynamic Parameters Using a Moiving Vehicle
    This paper investigates the feasibility of using an instrumented vehicle to detect bridge dynamic parameters, such as natural frequency and structural damping, in a scaled laboratory experiment. In the experiment, a scaled vehicle model crosses a steel girder which has been adopted as the bridge model. The bridge model also includes a scaled road surface profile. The effects of varying vehicle model mass and speed are investigated. The damping of the girder is also varied. The bridge frequency and changes in damping are detected in the vehicle acceleration response in the presence of a rough road surface profile.
      176
  • Publication
    Experimental Investigation of Drive-by Bridge Inspection
    This study presents a vibration-based health monitoring strategy for short span bridges utilizing an inspection vehicle. How to screen health condition of short span bridges in terms of the drive-by bridge inspection is described. Feasibility of the drive-by bridge inspection is investigated through a scaled laboratory moving vehicle experiment. The feasibility of using an instrumented vehicle to detect the natural frequency and changes in structural damping of a model bridge is observed. Observations also demonstrate the possibility of diagnosis of bridges by comparing patterns of identified dynamic parameters of bridges through periodical monitoring. It is confirmed that the moving vehicle method identifies the damage location and severity well.
      436
  • Publication
    Dynamic Axle Force and Road Profile Identification Using a Moving Vehicle
    The axle forces applied by a vehicle through its wheels are a critical part of the interaction between vehicles, pavements and bridges. Therefore, the minimisation of these forces is important in order to promote long pavement life spans and ensure that bridge loads are small. Moreover, as the road surface roughness affects the vehicle dynamic forces, the monitoring of pavements for highways and bridges is an important task. This paper presents a novel algorithm to identify these dynamic interaction forces which involves direct instrumentation of a vehicle with accelerometers. The ability of this approach to predict the pavement roughness is also presented. Moving force identification theory is applied to a vehicle model in theoretical simulations in order to obtain the interaction forces and pavement roughness from the measured accelerations. The method is tested for a range of bridge spans in simulations and the influence of road roughness level on the accuracy of the results is investigated. Finally, the challenge for the real-world problem is addressed in a laboratory experiment.
      200
  • Publication
    Detection of Bridge Dynamic Parameters Using an Instrumented Vehicle
    (World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2010) ; ;
    Highway structures such as bridges are subject to continuous degradation primarily due to ageing and environmental factors. A rational transport policy requires the monitoring of this transport infrastructure to provide adequate maintenance and guarantee the required levels of transport service and safety. In Europe, this is now a legal requirement - a European Directive requires all member states of the European Union to implement a Bridge Management System. However, the process is expensive, requiring the installation of sensing equipment and data acquisition electronics on the bridge. This paper investigates the use of an instrumented vehicle fitted with accelerometers on its axles to monitor the dynamic behaviour of bridges as an indicator of its structural condition. This approach eliminates the need for any on-site installation of measurement equipment. A simplified half-car vehicle-bridge interaction model is used in theoretical simulations to test the possibility of extracting the dynamic parameters of the bridge from the spectra of vehicle accelerations. The effect of vehicle speed, vehicle mass and bridge span length on the detection of the bridge dynamic parameters are investigated. The algorithm is highly sensitive to the condition of the road profile and simulations are carried out for both smooth and rough profiles.
      310
  • Publication
    Using Instrumented Vehicles to Detect Damage in Bridges
    This paper describes a drive-by method of bridge inspection using an instrumented vehicle. Accelerometers on the vehicle are proposed as a means of detecting damage on the bridge in the time it takes for the vehicle to cross the bridge at full highway speed. For a perfectly smooth road profile, the method is shown to be feasible. Changes in bridge damping, which is an indicator of damage, are clearly visible in the acceleration signal of a quarter-car vehicle on a smooth road surface modelled using MatLab. When road profile is considered, the influence of changes in bridge damping on the vehicle acceleration signal is much less clear. However, when a half-car model is used on a road with a rough profile, it is again possible to detect changes in bridge damping, provided the vehicle has two identical axles.
      213
  • Publication
    Characterisation of pavement profile heights using accelerometer readings and a combinatorial optimisation technique
    Pavement surface profiles induce dynamic ride responses in vehicles which can potentially be used to classify road surface roughness. A novel method is proposed for the characterisation of pavement roughness through an analysis of vehicle accelerations. A combinatorial optimisation technique is applied to the determination of pavement profile heights based on measured accelerations at and above the vehicle axle. Such an approach, using low-cost inertial sensors, would provide an inexpensive alternative to the costly laser-based profile measurement vehicles. The concept is numerically validated using a half-car roll dynamic model to infer measurements of road profiles in both the left and right wheel paths.
      1830
  • Publication
    Dynamic axle force and road profile identification using a moving vehicle
    (International Association for Sustainable Development and Management, 2013) ; ; ;
    In the interaction between vehicles, pavements and bridges, it is essential to aim towards a reduction of vehicle axle forces to promote longer pavement life spans and to prevent bridges loads becoming too high. Moreover, as the road surface roughness affects the vehicle dynamic forces, an efficient monitoring of pavement condition is also necessary to achieve this aim. This paper uses a novel algorithm to identify the dynamic interaction forces and pavement roughness from vehicle accelerations in both theoretical simulations and a laboratory experiment; moving force identification theory is applied to a vehicle model for this purpose. Theoretical simulations are employed to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to predict forces over a range of bridge spans and to evaluate the influence of road roughness level on the accuracy of the results. Finally, in addressing the challenge for the real-world problem, the effects of vehicle configuration and speed on the predicted road roughness are also investigated in a laboratory experiment.
      1785
  • Publication
    Dynamic axle force and road profile identification using a moving vehicle
    The axle forces applied by a vehicle through its wheels are a critical part of the interaction between vehicles, pavements and bridges. Therefore, the minimisation of these forces is important in order to promote long pavement life spans and ensure that bridge loads are small. Moreover, as the road surface roughness affects the vehicle dynamic forces, the monitoring of pavements for highways and bridges is an important task. This paper presents a novel algorithm to identify these dynamic interaction forces which involves direct instrumentation of a vehicle with accelerometers. The ability of this approach to predict the pavement roughness is also presented. Moving force identification theory is applied to a vehicle model in theoretical simulations in order to obtain the interaction forces and pavement roughness from the measured accelerations. The method is tested for a range of bridge spans in simulations and the influence of road roughness level on the accuracy of the results is investigated. Finally, the challenge for the real-world problem is addressed in a laboratory experiment. 
      349