Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    A new microplate procedure for simultaneous assessment of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants and pro-oxidants, using crocin and β-carotene bleaching methods in a single combined assay: Tea extracts as a case study
    β-Carotene and crocin bleaching reactions are the basis of two methods extensively used to quantify antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities. They are appropriate for lipophilic and hydrophilic matrices, respectively, and can provide useful complementary information in the study of complex natural extracts containing components with variable degrees of polarity. In this regard, a microplate procedure (Carotene Combined Bleaching) is proposed that enables the combination of both methods in a single, informative and less expensive method which is also faster to carry out. As an illustrative model, the method was applied to test a set of commercial lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants and some predictable pro-oxidant agents. Afterwards, as a food compound case study, the antioxidant activity of five types of tea extracts (Green, Blue, White, Black and Red) were characterized and their equivalent potential activity was calculated using commercial antioxidants on the basis of the new procedure developed in this research. The activity of the tea extracts decreased in the following order: (a) In a predominantly lipophilic environment: White > Black > Red > Blue > Green tea extracts; and (b) In a predominantly hydrophilic environment: Green > Red > White > Black > Blue tea extracts
      873Scopus© Citations 25
  • Publication
    Mathematical model as a standard procedure to analyze small and large water distribution networks
    Currently, more research to implement and monitor cleaner production practices for distribution and sustainable management of natural and alternative water sources to comply with the demands of the different users while preserving water levels are needed. In this paper, a periodic hourly-based model with meaningful parameters has been developed to analyze and forecast water demand as a function of time, thus enabling a better understanding of the consumption pattern and the condition of the pipe network. The model was tested by investigating the daily water consumption from selected categories of users which were isolated from different distribution networks in Sligo, Ireland. The flow data used was obtained in 15-min intervals and averaged in different time periods for analysis. In all cases, the model fittings obtained were highly consistent and all the parameters showed satisfactory confidence intervals (α = 0.05), thus demonstrating the reliability of this approach. The model provides a quick analysis revealing the regularities of water demand that could benefit water utility managers and researchers: to obtain optimal regulation and pumping schemes; for planning and design purposes; to control unexpected scenarios that can take place during the distribution of water; the performance of water distribution systems; and to locate possible network failures. In addition, the model parameters can be used as standard criteria for water utilities to compare precisely the water demand between different areas, identify complex trends and analyze the pipe network for managing, auditing and monitoring purposes.
      333Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Analytical criteria to quantify and compare the antioxidant and pro-oxidant capacity in competition assays: The bell protection function
    The development of a convenient mathematical application for testing the antioxidant and pro-oxidant potential of standard and novel therapeutic agents is essential for the research community and food industry in order to perform more precise evaluations of products and processes. In this work, a simple non-linear dose–time tool to test the effectiveness of compounds for competitive assays is presented. The model helps to describe accurately the antioxidant and pro-oxidant response as a function of time and dose by two criteria values and allows one to perform easily comparisons of both capacities from different compounds. The quantification procedure developed was applied to two well known in vitro competition assays, the β-carotene and crocin bleaching asymptotic reactions. The dose–time dependency of the response of commercial antioxidants and some expected pro-oxidant compounds was evaluated in this study and the results showed low experimental error. In addition, as an illustrative example of the capabilities of the criteria proposed, the quantification of the combined effect of an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant was analyzed. Afterwards, the model was verified for other relevant competitive methods, using available experimental data from the bibliography. Its application is simple, it provides parametric estimates which characterize the response, and it facilitates rigorous comparisons among the effects of different compounds and experimental approaches. In all experimental data tested, the calculated parameters were always statistically significant (Student's t-test, α = 0.05), the equations were consistent (Fisher's F-test) and the goodness of fit coefficient of determination was higher than 0.98.
      329Scopus© Citations 1