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- PublicationSynthesis and Structural Elucidation of 1,2‐Disubstituted 3‐FluoropiperidinesThe work described details the reaction between Selectfluor® and a series of 1‐carbonyloxy and 1‐sulfonyl 2‐piperidines in order to generate 3‐fluoro‐2‐methoxypiperidines 3a–f. Their subsequent reaction with allyltrimethylsilane, in the presence of BF3 and TiCl4, is then reported. Studies involving a combination of single‐crystal X‐ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy indicate that the allylation process is cis‐selective for both carbamate and sulfonamide variants and that optimal levels of diastereoselectivity are obtained using the N‐2‐nitrobenzene sulfonyl (2‐Ns) group. In this manner, the synthesis of a series of 2‐allyl 3‐fluoro‐substituted piperidines (5a, c–f) was achieved. The conversion of both the cis and trans‐N‐tosyl adducts (5d) into 3‐fluorinated analogues of the natural products pelletierine (10) and coniine (11) is subsequently detailed.
152Scopus© Citations 6
- PublicationHemiacetal stabilization in a chymotrypsin inhibitor complex and the reactivity of the hydroxyl group of the catalytic serine residue of chymotrypsinThe aldehyde inhibitor Z-Ala-Ala-Phe-CHO has been synthesized and shown by 13C-NMR to react with the active site serine hydroxyl group of alpha-chymotrypsin to form two diastereomeric hemiacetals. For both hemiacetals oxyanion formation occurs with a pKa value of ~ 7 showing that chymotrypsin reduces the oxyanion pKa values by ~ 5.6 pKa units and stabilizes the oxyanions of both diastereoisomers by ~ 32 kJ mol− 1. As pH has only a small effect on binding we conclude that oxyanion formation does not have a significant effect on binding the aldehyde inhibitor. By comparing the binding of Z-Ala-Ala-Phe-CHO with that of Z-Ala-Ala-Phe-H we estimate that the aldehyde group increases binding ~ 100 fold. At pH 7.2 the effective molarity of the active site serine hydroxy group is ~ 6000 which is ~ 7 × less effective than with the corresponding glyoxal inhibitor. Using 1H-NMR we have shown that at both 4 and 25 °C the histidine pKa is ~ 7.3 in free chymotrypsin and it is raised to ~ 8 when Z-Ala-Ala-Phe-CHO is bound. We conclude that oxyanion formation only has a minor role in raising the histidine pKa and that the aldehyde hydrogen must be replaced by a larger group to raise the histidine pKa > 10 and give stereospecific formation of tetrahedral intermediates. The results show that a large increase in the pKa of the active site histidine is not needed for the active site serine hydroxyl group to have an effective molarity of 6000.
424Scopus© Citations 9
- PublicationQuantifying tetrahedral adduct formation and stabilization in the cysteine and the serine proteasesTwo new papain inhibitors have been synthesized where the terminal α-carboxyl groups of Z-Phe-Ala-COOH and Ac-Phe-Gly-COOH have been replaced by a proton to give Z-Phe-Ala-H and Ac-Phe-Gly-H. We show that for papain, replacing the terminal carboxylate group of a peptide inhibitor with a hydrogen atom decreases binding 3–4 fold while replacing an aldehyde or glyoxal group with a hydrogen atom decreases binding by 300,000–1,000,000 fold. Thiohemiacetal formation by papain with aldehyde or glyoxal inhibitors is shown to be ~ 10,000 times more effective than hemiacetal or hemiketal formation with chymotrypsin. It is shown using effective molarities, that for papain, thiohemiacetal stabilization is more effective with aldehyde inhibitors than with glyoxal inhibitors. The effective molarity obtained when papain is inhibited by an aldehyde inhibitor is similar to the effective molarity obtained when chymotrypsin is inhibited by glyoxal inhibitors showing that both enzymes can stabilize tetrahedral adducts by similar amounts. Therefore the greater potency of aldehyde and glyoxal inhibitors with papain is not due to greater thiohemiacetal stabilization by papain compared to the hemiketal and hemiacetal stabilization by chymotrypsin, instead it reflects the greater intrinsic reactivity of the catalytic thiol group of papain compared to the catalytic hydroxyl group of chymotrypsin. It is argued that while the hemiacetals and thiohemiacetals formed with the serine and cysteine proteases respectively can mimic the catalytic tetrahedral intermediate they are also analogues of the productive and non-productive acyl intermediates that can be formed with the cysteine and serine proteases.
322Scopus© Citations 7