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    Ti-Doped SBA-15 Catalysts Used in Phenol Oxidation Reactions
    Two Ti-SBA-15 catalysts are synthesized using techniques that should either deposit Ti atoms specifically at the SBA-15 surface or allow Ti-containing species to exist at both the surface and within the bulk of SBA-15. The materials have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman and UV visible spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry microscopies, and N2 physisorption experiments. They have been applied in the total oxidation of phenol under catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) conditions and using photo-and plasma promotion. The materials retain the structure of SBA-15 following the doping in both cases and Ti incorporation is confirmed. The nature of the incorporated Ti remains unclear-with evidence for anatase TiO2 (from Raman and UV vis analysis) and evidence for atomically dispersed Ti from FTIR. In terms of reactivity, the presence of Ti in the in situ-prepared catalyst improves reactivity in the photopromoted reaction (increasing conversion from 28 to 60%), while both Ti catalysts improve reactivity in the CWAO reaction (by 7% over the in situ catalyst and by 25% over the grafted material). The presence of Ti has no beneficial effect on conversion in the plasma-promoted reaction. Here, however, Ti does affect the nature of the oxidized intermediates formed during the total phenol oxidation.
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