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    Dynamic Load Allowance
    Chapter 4 provides a good explanation of the current state-of-the-art for the influence of dynamics on bridge traffic loading. It starts with an explanation of the concepts and a review of the various definitions used in the field, such as Dynamic Amplification factor and Impact Factor. It looks at how some of the main codes of practice in the world treat dynamics. A considerable portion of the chapter deals with the statistics of dynamic amplification. It is noted that the biggest dynamic amplifications tend to occur for light vehicle loading events. A statistical approach addresses this issue and provides a more appropriate allowance for dynamics which is called Assessment Dynamic Ratio. The influence of road surface roughness is considered and the implications of a local irregularity or pothole, as sometimes happens near the end joints. A number of field measurement campaigns of dynamic amplification are reported from various countries. These largely support the findings of the numerical studies.