Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
  • Publication
    Harmonic stability of VSC connected Low Frequency AC offshore transmission with long HVAC cables
    Low Frequency AC (LFAC) transmission has been proposed as an alternative to HVDC transmission for the integration of offshore wind. The LFAC offshore grid as a fully power electronic grid with a long HVAC cable provides significant challenges to harmonic stability. This paper presents an impedance based stability analysis to determine the stability of the power electronic offshore system across the harmonic frequency range. The stability analysis is introduced and applied to the LFAC system. The impact of different current and voltage control bandwidths and component sizes on the dynamic impedance of the converters is then examined and their impact on harmonic stability of the LFAC grid is determined. It is found that detailed knowledge of the control parameters and the ability to tune the bandwidths can mitigate significant harmonic instability with the presence of a long HVAC cable. Three phase simulations are then used to validated the impedance based stability technique.
      315Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Use of voltage limits for current limitation in grid-forming converters
    (Power System Technology Press, 2020-02-13) ; ;
    Renewable generation interfaced through grid-forming converters are proposed as a replacement for synchronous generators in power systems. However, compared to the synchronous generator, the power electronics converter has a strict limit on the current to avoid overcurrent damage. The grid-forming converter acts like a voltage source, directily controlling the voltage. This conflicts with the operation of the conventional current limit control, which is applied to a current source. The switch between the voltage control and current control aimed to impose the current limit leads to synchronization instability. This paper proposes a novel control scheme which can be applied to the grid forming voltage control in order to enforce current limits. The proposed method has been verified through simulation and hardware tests in both symmetrical and asymmetrical faults to perform current suppression while maintaining synchronization stability in the voltage control mode.
      171Scopus© Citations 19
  • Publication
    Parameter Constraints for Virtual Synchronous Generator Considering Stability
    A virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control for converters has been proposed as a method to provide virtual inertia from power electronics connected generation and storage. Most works to date have analyzed VSG control under the assumption that the VSG dynamics are much slower than that the converter. This work shows that when converter and line dynamics are taken into account, the virtual inertia and damping settings are constrained by stability considerations. These conditions for stability are analyzed based on a simple transfer function approach. It is shown that for the VSG to be stable and validly approximated by a second-order system, the ratio of damping to virtual inertia is a key parameter. This letter quantifies how these VSG parameters are constrained by stability. The transfer function analysis is validated using full switching model simulations of stable and unstable cases.
      350Scopus© Citations 80
  • Publication
    Methodology for Assessment of the Impact of Smart Transformers on Power System Reliability
    The smart transformer (ST) has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional low frequency transformer as a means to provide extra control functionality in the smart power system. The ST has merits in terms of reactive power decoupling and voltage decoupling at the primary and secondary side. This provides flexibility for reactive power compensation in the transmission system and demand reduction in the distribution system. Using its ability to control demand through voltage regulation, the ST provides the possibility to reduce demand while keeping the entire load online, which can provide an alternative to load curtailment. Thus, it may provide a means to improve power system reliability. However, no of previous research has investigated these potential system reliability benefits of the ST. The paper presents a methodology which can be used to quantify the system reliability impacts of the use of STs
  • Publication
    Impact of Current Transients on the Synchronization Stability Assessment of Grid-Feeding Converters
    The synchronization instability in the presence of a fault is a main issue for the dynamic behavior and control of grid-feeding converters. In the literature, the synchronization stability assessment is carried out considering the dynamics of Phase-Locked Loops (PLL) but the transients of converter currents are neglected. The letter shows that such a simplification leads to inaccuracies and, thus, the current transients cannot be neglected. The letter proposes a model that captures the effect of such current transients on the converter synchronization. This model allows assessing the transient behavior and, hence, the stability, of power electronics converters with high accuracy, comparable, in fact, to EMT models. The fidelity of the proposed model is duly discussed in the case study.
      114Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Design of VSC Connected Low Frequency AC Offshore Transmission with Long HVAC Cables
    Low frequency ac transmission (LFAC) has been proposed as an alternative to high voltage dc transmission for medium distance (80-150 km) offshore wind farms. Long HVAC cables and their associated low frequency resonance, connected to voltage source converters (VSC), provide technical challenges for the control of the offshore voltage. This paper provides the design of the offshore voltage 'grid forming control' to maintain a stable offshore voltage accounting for the connection of a long HVAC cable connected to the VSC. Simulations are performed on an LFAC test system to examine the influence of controller parameters and the associated design tradeoffs between the selection of dq controller time constants and voltage control bandwidth. The LFAC system design and control is then validated in a hardware experiment where the proposed controller operates in a real-Time hardware-in-The-loop experiment.
      389Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Neutral Current Minimization Control for Solid State Transformers under Unbalanced Loads in Distribution Systems
    This paper analyses the neutral current reduction performance of a three phase four leg solid state transformer (SST) under different degrees of unbalanced load. Several kinds of control strategies are presented, the neutral current elimination controls which rely on phase shifting, voltage amplitude and phase shifting & voltage amplitude combination control. A neutral current minimization control which ensures the SST output voltages complies with the EN 50160 output voltage unbalance standard is also developed. These control approaches simply build on the balanced voltage control providing voltage references which slightly unbalanced the voltage amplitude and phase angle or both. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is validated through tests on a downscaled prototype. Simulation results for the neutral current minimization control of the SST applied to a real urban distribution network with distributed loads are presented. The results of this analysis show that overall the neutral current minimization results in an energy saving from both reduced losses in the distribution cables and reduced power consumption in the load.
      369Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    Assessment of Grid-Feeding Converter Voltage Stability
    This letter applies voltage stability analysis to grid feeding converters in the presence of the converter stability versus the grid state and its operation. By applying this analysis, it is shown that the converter may become unstable if the converter reference power or current exceeds the line capacity. This letter proposes to use a conventional PV curve to determine the stability of the dynamic response of grid-feeding converters considering both power and current limits.
      316Scopus© Citations 18
  • Publication
    Analysis of virtual synchronous generator control and its response based on transfer functions
    Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG) control has been proposed as a means to control power electronics converter interfaced generation and storage which retains the dynamics of the conventional synchronous machine. This study provides a comprehensive, transfer function based, analysis of VGS control, which can be used as the basis for the design of VSG transient and steady-state performance. Based on a hardware validated, large signal model, a small signal model and associated transfer functions which describe the changes in real and reactive powers in response to changes in references and grid frequency disturbances. The derived transfer functions are used to obtain insight into the correct design of VSG controllers. The small signal models, transfer functions and associated analysis are validated by comparison with measured results on a scaled hardware system.
      243Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Smart Transformer and Low Frequency Transformer Comparison on Power Delivery Characteristics in the Power System
    Smart transformer is a power electronics-based transformer, offering voltage regulation and DC connectivity. As a transformer, its basic function is still power delivery. Smart transformer with advanced controls can support MV gird voltage by absorbing/injecting reactive power while actively regulate the LV grid voltage. Due to the controllable voltage in both MV and LV side, the power delivery of smart transformer is flexible. This paper focuses on the power delivery characteristic of smart transformer and compares with the conventional low frequency transformer with the help of STACTOM at its primary side or on load tap changer at its secondary side, in the power system by means of maximum deliverable power and power-voltage curve analysis. The Simulink results validate that the smart transformer improves system voltage stability compared to the traditional low frequency transformer with load tap changer.
      429Scopus© Citations 9