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- PublicationTransforming our understanding of Neolithic and Chalcolithic society (4000–2200 BC) in IrelandThe Neolithic is a transformative period marked by major cultural, social and technological change across Europe. Its global significance, long-term social impact and its spread from several origin points continue to be widely discussed. Occurring towards the end of a process involving the spread of agriculture from the Near East around 9000 BC (Robb 2013), the Neolithic period in Ireland is commonly defined chronologically as between 4000 and 2500 BC. In this paper, its final phase is considered to also include the 300 years prior to the start of the Bronze Age c. 2200 BC. The concept of transformation can be applied to this time-span from a number of perspectives, in terms of the establishment of agriculturally based societies on this island and the changes that ensue, but also how our knowledge has been advanced by recent discoveries.