Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Profiles of resilient survivors of institutional abuse in Ireland
    In a group of 247 survivors of institutional abuse in Ireland, 45 cases (18%) did not meet the diagnostic criteria for common DSM IV axis I or II disorders. This resilient group was compared with a poorly adjusted group of 119 participants who met the criteria for 1-3 DSM IV axis I or II diagnoses, and a very poorly adjusted group of 83 participants who had 4 or more disorders. Compared with the very poorly adjusted group, the resilient group was older and of higher socio-economic status; had suffered less sexual and emotional institutional abuse; experienced less traumatization and re-enactment of institutional abuse; had fewer trauma symptoms and life problems; had a higher quality of life and global level of functioning; engaged in less avoidant coping; and more resilient survivors had a secure adult attachment style. The resilient group differed from the poorly adjusted group on a subset of these variables. The results of this study require replication in other contexts. Therapeutic interventions with survivors should focus on facilitating the use of non-avoidant coping strategies and the development of a secure adult attachment style.
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  • Publication
    Adult adjustment of survivors of institutional child abuse in Ireland
    Method Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Personality Disorders, the Trauma Symptom Inventory, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Results The prevalence of psychological disorders among adult survivors of institutional abuse was over 80% and far higher than in the normal population, with anxiety, mood and substance use disorders being the most prevalent diagnoses. Survivors also had high rates of trauma symptoms and insecure adult attachment styles, and these were higher for those who had experienced both institutional and intrafamilial abuse. Conclusions There was an association between the experience of institutional abuse in childhood and the prevalence of adult mental health problems, particularly anxiety, mood and substance use disorders. Practice implications Policies, practices and procedures should be regularly reviewed and revised to maximize protection of young people in institutional care. Evidence-based psychological treatment should be made available to adult survivors of institutional abuse.
      1610Scopus© Citations 57
  • Publication
    Profiles of adult survivors of severe sexual, physical and emotional institutional abuse in Ireland
    Adult survivors of institutional abuse were interviewed with a comprehensive assessment protocol which included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Institutional Child Abuse Processes and Coping Inventory, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV axis I disorders and personality disorders, the Trauma Symptoms Inventory, a Life Problems Checklist, the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. Profiles were identified for subgroups that described severe sexual (N = 60), physical (N = 102), or emotional (N = 85) abuse as their worst forms of maltreatment. Survivors of severe sexual abuse had the most abnormal profile, which was characterised by higher rates of all forms of child maltreatment and higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder, trauma symptoms and life problems. Survivors of severe emotional abuse were better adjusted than the other two groups. The profile of survivors of severe physical abuse occupied an intermediate position between the other two groups. A thorough assessment of abuse history and current functioning should be conducted when providing services to adult survivors of institutional abuse, since this may have important implications for the intensity of services required. Survivors of severe sexual abuse may require more intensive services.
      926Scopus© Citations 30
  • Publication
    Development and initial validation of the Institutional Child Abuse Processes and Coping Inventory among a sample of Irish adult survivors of institutional abuse
    Objective. To develop a psychometric instrument to evaluate psychological processes associated with institutional abuse and coping strategies used to deal with such abuse. Methods. As part of a comprehensive assessment protocol, an inventory containing theoretically derived multi-item rational scales which assessed institutional abuse-related psychological processes and coping strategies were administered to 247 Irish adult survivors of institutional child abuse. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to derive 6 factor scales, the reliability and validity of which were assessed. Results. Factor scales to assess the following constructs were developed (1) traumatization, (2) re-enactment, (3) spiritual disengagement, (4) positive coping, (5) coping by complying, and (6) avoidant coping. There were varying degrees of support for the validity of the scales with most support for the traumatization and re-enactment scales. Conclusions. The Institutional Child Abuse Processes and Coping Inventory (ICAPCI), particularly its traumatization and re-enactment scales, may be used in future research on adult survivors of institutional child abuse because they are currently the only scales that have been developed with this population to provide reliable and valid assessments of these constructs. Practice implications. The ICAPCI may be used, cautiously, to assess adult survivors of institutional child abuse.
      412Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Profiles of Irish survivors of institutional abuse with different adult attachment styles
    Two hundred and forty seven survivors of institutional abuse in Ireland were classified with the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory as having fearful (44%), preoccupied (13%), dismissive (27%) or secure (17%) adult attachment styles. The group with the secure adult attachment style had the most positive profile, while the most negative profile occurred for the fearful group in terms of DSM IV diagnoses and scores on the Trauma Symptom Inventory, the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life 100 scale, and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. The profile of the preoccupied group was more similar to that of the fearful group. The profile of the dismissive group was more similar to that of the secure group
      555Scopus© Citations 10