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- PublicationTRUSS Training in Reducing Uncertainty in Structural Safety: D5.2 Final Report: WP5 - Rail and Road InfrastructureThis deliverable reports on the outputs of eight Early Stage Researchers (ESR7-ESR14) in work package, WP5 (Rail and Road Infrastructure), under the supervision of academic and industrial experts during the three years of their projects within the EU TRUSS (Training in Reducing Uncertainty in Structural Safety, 2015-2018) Innovative Training Network (ITN) programme (http://trussitn.eu/). Two types of infrastructure are analysed in WP5: bridges (ESR7-ESR12) and pavements (ESR13-ESR14). The first six projects aim to reduce uncertainty in bridge safety. They address areas of work such as bridge condition assessment (ESR7), probabilistic modelling of bridge damage using damage indicators (ESR8), railway bridge condition monitoring and fault diagnostics (ESR9), condition assessment based on measured vibration level (ESR10), the use of optical fibre distributed sensing for monitoring (ESR11), and the use of displacement and velocity measurements for damage localisation (ESR12). The last two projects are on uncertainty in pavement safety, where ESR13 considers the use of truck sensors for road pavement performance and asset management and ESR14 investigates the possibility of using unmanned aerial vehicles and photogrammetry method for road and bridge inspections. Generally, the areas of work developed in this work package are vehicle-infrastructure interaction, traffic load modelling, road materials, uncertainty modelling, reliability analysis, field measurement and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges.
- PublicationStructural Health Monitoring Developments in TRUSS Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training NetworkThis paper reports on recent contributions by the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network titled TRUSS (Training in Reducing Uncertainty of Structural Safety) to the field of structural safety in rail and road bridges (http://trussitn.eu). In TRUSS, uncertainty in bridge safety is addressed via cost efficient structural performance monitoring and fault diagnostics methods including: (1) the use of the rotation response due to the traffic traversing a bridge and weigh-in-motion concepts as damage indicator, (2) the combination of design parameters in probabilistic context for geometrical and material properties, traffic data and assumption on level of deterioration to evaluate bridge safety (via Bayesian updating and a damage indicator based on real time measurement), (3) the application of a fuzzy classification technique via feature selection extracted using empirical mode decomposition to detect failure, and (4) the testing of alternative vibration based damage sensitive features other than modal parameters. Progress has also been made in improving modern technologies based on optical fiber distributed sensing, and sensors mounted on instrumented terrestrial and on aerial vehicles, in order to gather more accurate and efficient info about the structure. More specifically, the following aspects have been covered: (a) the spatial resolution and strain accuracy obtained with optical distributed fiber when applied to concrete elements as well as the ideal adhesive, and the potential for detecting crack or abnormal deflections without failure or debonding, (b) the possibility of using the high-resolution measurement capabilities of the Traffic Speed Deflectometer for bridge monitoring purposes and, (c) the acquisition of bridge details and defects via unmanned aerial vehicles.
- PublicationAutomated Bridge Deck Evaluation through UAV Derived Point CloudImagery-based, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) hold the potential to provide a safer, more economical, and less disruptive approach for bridge inspection. This paper describes a methodology using a low-cost UAV to generate an imagery-based, dense point cloud for bridge deck inspection. Structure from motion (SfM) is employed to create a three-dimensional (3D) point cloud. Outlier data are removed through a density-based filtering method. Next, the unsupervised learning algorithm k-means and an object-based region growing algorithm are compared for accuracy with respect to bridge deck extraction. Last, an automatic pavement evaluation method is proposed to estimate the deck’s pavement condition. The procedure is demonstrated through an actual case study, in which a 3D point cloud of 16 million valid points was generated from 212 images. With that data set, the region growing method successfully extracted the deck area with an F-score close to 95%, while the unsupervised learning approach only achieved 76%. In the last, to evaluate the surface condition of the extracted pavement, a polynomial surface fitting method was designed to evaluate and visualise the damages.
- PublicationTRUSS Training in Reducing Uncertainty in Structural Safety: D2.5 Final Report: WP2 - Dissemination and OutreachThis report describes the outputs of work package WP2 (Dissemination and Outreach) from 1 st January 2015 to 31st December 2018. Dissemination by TRUSS is keenly aware of the importance of not only producing and presenting research outputs for the scientific community and key stakeholders (i.e., via conferences, workshops, publications and reports), but also engaging the general public in line with the Innovation Union objectives. TRUSS mainly deals with the challenges faced at the design, assessment and management stages of large scale structures. Outreach activities, blogs and social media and other communications by TRUSS, bring awareness to the public on the importance of this research on infrastructure to support a community, region or country, and also motivate School and University students to pursue a research career. These activities make citizens aware of: • Infrastructure aging and failing, with funding that has been insufficient to repair and replace it; • The important role of the Marie Skłodowksa-Curie Actions in forming 21st century engineers that will have the skills to face the formidable challenge of modernizing the fundamental infrastructure that support civilization.
- PublicationThe effect of angles and distance on image-based, three-dimensional re-constructionsThis paper introduces a three-dimensional reconstruction experiment based on a physical laboratory-based experiment on a brick wall. Using controlled shooting distances and angles, different images sets were captured and processed with a structure from motion based technique, which can reconstruct 3D models based on multi-view, two-dimensional (2D) images. Those 2D geometries are shown to generate significant deformations within the resulting point cloud, especially where there were large angles (with respect the camera position and the wall's normal direction) and at close distances to the wall's surface. This paper demonstrates that by overlapping different flawed image sets, the deformation problem can be minimised.
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- PublicationState of Technology Review of Civilian UAVsBackground: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has exploded in recent years. Presently UAVs are beginning to be major in roads into geographical mapping, site inspection, agriculture, and search and rescue. Methods: This paper reviewed patents and papers worldwide related to both hardware and software for the construction and deployment of UAVs and is intended to provide a snapshot of currently available UAV technologies, as well as to identify recent trends and future opportunities in affiliated hardware and software. Results: Basic components related to self-designed units are explained (e.g. platform selection, autopilot control comparison and sensor selection), and current applications and research areas are discussed. Since autonomous navigation is a key technology in UAV applications, concepts about this are also explained. Conclusions: Both in the self-designed and commercial markets, UAV components are becoming modularized. By following a standard components list, it is no longer difficult to make a customised UAV. In this way, commercial products are becoming cheaper and more standardized in their performance. Current limitations of UAVs has also become more readily detectible. Extending the flight time, improving autonomous navigation abilities, and enriching the payload capacity will be the future research focus to address these limitations.
2793Scopus© Citations 42