Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Photo-catalytic degradation of an oil-water emulsion using the photo-Fenton treatment process : effects and statistical optimization
    The application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of an effluent contaminated with hydrocarbon oils was investigated. The AOPs conducted were Fe2+/H2O2 (Fenton’s reagent), Fe2+/H2O2/UV (Photo-Fenton’s reagent) and UV-photolysis. These technologies utilize the very strong oxidizing power of hydroxyl radicals to oxidize organic compounds to harmless end products such as CO2 and H2O. A synthetic wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water was used. This wastewater might simulate, for example, a waste resulting from a hydrocarbon oil spill, onto which detergent was sprayed. The experiments utilising the Photo-Fenton treatment method with an artificial UV source, coupled with Fenton’s reagent, suggest that the hydrocarbon oil is readily degradable, but that the emulsifying agent is much more resistant to degradation. The results showed that the COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal rate was affected by the Photo-Fenton parameters (Fe2+, H2O2 concentrations and the initial pH) of the aqueous solution. In addition, the applicability of the treatment method to a ‘real’ wastewater contaminated with hydrocarbon oil is demonstrated. The ‘real’ wastewater was sourced at a nearby car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment method in this case. A statistical analysis of the experimental data using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the experimental design was applied to optimize the Photo-Fenton parameters (concentrations of Fe2+, H2O2 and initial pH) and to maximize the COD removal rate (more than 70%).
      3757Scopus© Citations 49
  • Publication
    TRUSS Training in Reducing Uncertainty in Structural Safety: D2.5 Final Report: WP2 - Dissemination and Outreach
    This report describes the outputs of work package WP2 (Dissemination and Outreach) from 1 st January 2015 to 31st December 2018. Dissemination by TRUSS is keenly aware of the importance of not only producing and presenting research outputs for the scientific community and key stakeholders (i.e., via conferences, workshops, publications and reports), but also engaging the general public in line with the Innovation Union objectives. TRUSS mainly deals with the challenges faced at the design, assessment and management stages of large scale structures. Outreach activities, blogs and social media and other communications by TRUSS, bring awareness to the public on the importance of this research on infrastructure to support a community, region or country, and also motivate School and University students to pursue a research career. These activities make citizens aware of: • Infrastructure aging and failing, with funding that has been insufficient to repair and replace it; • The important role of the Marie Skłodowksa-Curie Actions in forming 21st century engineers that will have the skills to face the formidable challenge of modernizing the fundamental infrastructure that support civilization.
  • Publication
    Urban drainage in Ireland - embracing sustainable systems
    The current approach to stormwater management in Ireland requires that outflows from new developments are restricted to greenfield values that would have occurred prior to development. This typically involved the use of holding tanks constructed within developments to attenuate stormwater from where it was released at a reduced rate via a control structure to a nearby drainage network or watercourse. Improved drainage policies now require that sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) are used to meet this objective. This study presents an evaluation of perceived issues that may impede the adoption of new policies. The findings are based on surveys and focus groups of practitioners involved with the planning and design of drainage systems. Although the study indicates that benefits of SuDS are reasonably well understood, their use, for many reasons, has remained less popular. Concerns with ongoing maintenance and long-term responsibility of SuDS remain impediments to the embracing of these systems in drainage strategies.
      1748Scopus© Citations 18
  • Publication
    Evaluating the photo-catalytic application of Fenton’s reagent augmented with TiO2 and ZnO for the mineralization of an oil-water emulsion
    In the present work, homogenous (photo-Fenton) and heterogeneous photo-assisted systems (Fenton/TiO2/UV, Fenton/ZnO/UV and Fenton/TiO2/UV/Air) were investigated for the treatment of a diesel-oil wastewater emulsion. The augmentation of the photo-Fenton process by heterogeneous TiO2 increased the reaction rate, in terms of COD reduction efficiency from 61% to 71%. Furthermore, the COD removal efficiency was increased to 84% when air was bubbled through the reactants. However, if the Fenton/TiO2/UV/Air process is to be utilized as a treatment for this wastewater, the separation of the TiO2 from the treated effluent would need further consideration.
      5250Scopus© Citations 37
  • Publication
    Water quality monitoring during the construction of the M3 motorway in Ireland
    The M3 motorway in Ireland was constructed between the years 2007 and 2010. The motorway crosses the River Boyne, which is a designated salmonid water under the EU Freshwater directive, and its tributaries. The paper describes the measures taken to mitigate any potential impacts which the road scheme might have had on the aquatic environment and the water quality of the Boyne watercourses before-, during- and post-construction. The success of the mitigation measures undertaken is assessed by: (a) comparing pre-construction, during-construction and post-construction water quality data, (b) comparing measured water quality with relevant standards, (c) comparing water quality data upstream and downstream of river crossings, (d) the establishment of a pilot-scale real-time water quality monitoring station at the downstream end of the works before discharge into the river Boyne. The study concluded that the measures taken have been successful in minimising the water quality impacts associated with the road scheme.
      1429Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes
    (Taylor & Francis, 2012-02-09) ; ;
    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a ‘real’ hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a ‘real’ hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a ‘synthetic’ hydrocarbon wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water. The AOPs investigated were Fe2+/H2O2 (Fenton's reagent), Fe2+/H2O2/UV (Photo-Fenton's reagent) which may be used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional treatment techniques. Laboratory-scale batch and continuous-flow experiments were undertaken. The photo-Fenton parametric concentrations to maximize COD removal were optimized: pH = 3, H2O2 = 400 mg/L, and Fe2+ = 40 mg/L. In the case of the oil-refinery wastewater, photo-Fenton treatment achieved approximately 50% COD removal and, when preceded by physicochemical treatment, the percentage removal increased to approximately 75%.
      2019Scopus© Citations 89
  • Publication
    Academic Advising in Civil Engineering: design and evaluation of a hybrid model
    A project to formalise and expand Academic Advising has been implemented at the UCD Civil Engineering School. The goals of this project were twofold: on the one hand, it aimed at training faculty members in Academic Advising roles and providing them with the necessary resources. On the other hand, the project sought to expand student interaction, in particular by engaging students informally in order to build a rapport between them and the academic advisors that we expect will bring long term benefits. The resulting model combines elements of both the prescriptive, e.g., formal training, informative talks on key topics, and developmental approaches, e.g., coffee mornings for students and faculty members. The evaluation of the project was carried out through questionnaires and focus groups. It highlighted very positive feedback from the students, who find these new lines of communication with the academic staff to be useful and productive.
      120Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    An evaluation of urban flood estimation methodologies in Ireland
    (Wiley and Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM), 2010-03) ; ; ;
    This paper summarises the findings of a study to evaluate the use in Ireland of the different flood estimation methodologies that can be applied to urban or urbanising catchments. The study, undertaken as part of the Office of Public Works‟ (OPW) Flood Studies Update programme, comprised both quantitative (posted questionnaires) and qualitative research (focus groups) targeting a range of organisations involved with planning and design issues pertaining to urban flooding. A total of 291 questionnaires was circulated. Of these, 100 were returned, equating to a response rate of 34%. Results indicate that formulae and methods for determining runoff rates in urban and urbanising catchments are being applied very generally without due consideration being given to the statistical foundation underlying the methods. The resulting inconsistencies in estimated runoff rates highlight the need for National Guidance for flow estimation in urban and urbanising catchments in Ireland.
      4003Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Designing for surface water runoff control : end-user requirements in Ireland
    Since 1975, flood estimation in Ireland has generally followed methods as outlined in the Flood Studies Report (Natural Environment Research Council, 1975). An update of this for conditions in the Republic of Ireland commenced in 2005 and included research in Urban Catchment Flood Analysis. To inform this work, a scoping study of issues relating to flooding caused by urban runoff was undertaken by a team from the Centre for Water Resources Research at University College Dublin and some of the findings are described in this paper. It focussed on quantitative and qualitative research methods (self-completion questionnaires and Focus Groups) to review the methods of flood estimation for urbanised catchments currently in use in Ireland. It assessed the nature of deficiencies associated with urban-runoff control and identified achievable and realistic objectives for further research. A questionnaire was developed around a number of key themes pertaining to flooding caused by urban runoff and circulated to 291 stakeholders in target sectors that ranged from Engineering Consultancies to Academic Institutions. A total of 100 questionnaires were returned giving a 34% response rate. The study found; (i) a proliferation of methods are used in practice resulting in significant differences between the estimates; (ii) some methods are sometimes being used for inappropriate spatial scales; (iii) there is a lack of clear guidance on the use of the methods and/or associated software packages; (iv) there is little appreciation of the uncertainties associated with the methods and (v) there are significant deficiencies in some of the basic information available. A list of recommendations was produced, to guide the commissioning of future research to improve the methods available to designers.
    Scopus© Citations 1  1096