Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Hops, Skip and a Jump: The Regional Uniqueness of Beer Styles
    (University College Dublin. Spatial Dynamics Lab, 2023-06-12) ; ; ;
    Perhaps more than any other product, beer evokes its place of origin. Part of what makes every pint of Guinness or stein of Paulaner so memorable is what sets them apart and gives them their unique "taste of place." This chapter explores the geographical differentiation of beer. To do so, we collect data on regional beer recipes, styles, and ingredients from a homebrewing website. We then employ Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) methods and create weighted co-occurrence networks for the ingredients within each style. We use these networks to identify which ingredients are most important to each beer style, measure a style’s robustness, and compare differences between geographically close and distant styles. While previous literature focuses on the related diversification of regions, we use these methods to examine the differences within the same product and across many regional styles and flavours. Combining the EEG methods with this unique ingredients dataset, we show that almost all beer styles rely on only a handful of key ingredients. Yet some regional beers are more robust than others due to readily available substitute ingredients in their region. Likewise, we demonstrate that styles originating in close geographic proximity are more similar in their use of ingredients.
      100
  • Publication
    Patent Boxes and the Success Rate of Applications
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2021-04-21) ; ;
    Patent boxes significantly reduce the corporate tax rate applied to income earned from a patent. This incentivizes firms to increase the likelihood of a patent application being granted by creating more novel research and using more successful legal representation when filing the application. Conversely, it supports submitting applications for marginally novel innovations that otherwise would not have been submitted, lowering the probability of success. We use data from applications to the European Patent Office from 1978 to 2019 and find that the introduction of a patent box increases the average success rate of applications from large, corporate innovators by 6.9 percentage points. This impact only materializes two years after a patent box takes effect, suggesting that improved research effort is the dominant response by firms. Therefore patent boxes may help to increase innovation novelty and improve the overall quality of research.
      256
  • Publication
    OK Computer: The Creation and Integration of AI in Europe
    (University College Dublin School of Economics, 2019-05) ; ; ;
    This paper investigates the creation and integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) patents in Europe. We create a panel of AI patents over time, mapping them into regions at the NUTS2 level. We then proceed by examining how AI is integrated into the knowledge space of each region. In particular, we find that those regions where AI is most embedded into the innovation landscape are also those where the number of AI patents is largest. This suggests that to increase AI innovation it may be necessary to integrate it with industrial development, a feature central to many recent AI-promoting policies.
      687
  • Publication
    Appendix to Hops, Skip and a Jump: The Regional Uniqueness of Beer Styles
    Appendix to the chapter 'Hops, Skip and a Jump: The Regional Uniqueness of Beer Styles' in Patterson, M., Hoalst-Pullen, N. (eds.). Geography of Beer: Policies, Propaganda and Place, including glossary, list of styles, malts and hops and a sample BeerXML file.
      63
  • Publication
    Geography and Branding in the Craft Beer Industry
    (University College Dublin. Spatial Dynamics Lab, 2023-10-24) ;
    Place-based branding strategies are important marketing tools for both regions and firms and take advantage of consumers’ embrace of the local in response to globalization. Craft brewing is a particularly salient user of these strategies and provides ample data. We find a strong, positive link between the number of place-based labels and a brewery’s rating, suggesting consumers are receptive to place-based branding.
      140
  • Publication
    Hops, Skip & a Jump: The Regional Uniqueness of Beer Styles
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2020-12) ; ; ;
    Perhaps more than any other product, beer evokes the place it was made. Weißbier and Germany, dubbels and Belgium, and most of all, Guinness and Ireland. Part of what makes these beers so memorable is what sets them apart and gives them their ‘taste of place’. Many studies have tried to place that taste, and due to a lack of detailed data, have relied largely on qualitative methods to do so. We introduce a novel data set of regionalized beer recipes, styles, and ingredients collected from a homebrewing website. We then turn to the methods of evolutionary economic geography to create regional ingredient networks for recipes within a style of beer, and identify which ingredients are most important to certain styles. Along with identifying these keystone ingredients, we calculate a style’s resiliency or reliance on one particular ingredient. We compare this resiliency within similar styles in different regions and across different styles in the same region to isolate the effects of region on ingredient choice. We find that while almost all beer styles have only a handful of key ingredients, some styles are more resilient than others due to readily available substitute ingredients in their region.
      234