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  • Publication
    Effect of β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplemented barley diets on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and expression of intestinal nutrient transporter genes in finisher pigs
    The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of an enzyme mix (β-glucanase and β-xylanase) to barley based diets that had different chemical compositions achieved through different agronomical conditions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal nutrient transporters. Ninety-six pigs (44.7 kg (SD 4.88)) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments. The treatments were as follows: (T1) low quality barley diet, (T2) low quality barley diet supplemented with β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplement, (T3) high quality barley diet and (T4) high quality barley diet supplemented with β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplement. The inclusion of barley was 500 g/kg. There was an interaction between barley type and enzyme supplementation on average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0.05). Pigs offered the low quality barley diet supplemented with enzymes had an increase in both ADG and ADFI compared to the low quality barley diet only. However, there was no response to enzyme inclusion in the high quality barley diet. Pigs offered the low quality barley diet with enzymes had a higher coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy (GE) compared to the low quality barley diet only (P < 0.05). However, the increase in the high quality barley diet with enzyme supplementation was not as great as with the low quality barley diet. Pigs offered the low quality barley had an upregulation in the expression of the ghrelin gene (GHRL) in the jejunum compared to pigs offered the high quality barley diet (P < 0.05). There was a barley × enzyme interaction observed for the expression of the cluster of differentiation gene (CD36) in the duodenum and the peptide transporter 1 gene (PEPT1/SLC15A1) and sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 gene (SGLT1/SLC5A1) in the ileum (P < 0.01). Pigs offered the high quality barley diet with enzymes had increased expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1 compared to the high quality barley diet alone. However the low quality barley diet with enzymes down regulated the expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1 compared to the low quality barley diet alone. In conclusion, offering a low quality barley diet supplemented with an enzyme mix improved ADG, ADFI and nutrient digestibility as well as modifying the expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1. The inclusion of an enzyme mix to the high quality barley diet improved nutrient digestibility and caused an upregulation in the expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1 but it did not improve animal performance.
      288Scopus© Citations 15
  • Publication
    Mycotoxin binder increases growth performance, nutrient digestibility and digestive health of finisher pigs offered wheat based diets grown under different agronomical conditions
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a wheat-based diet, exhibiting different levels of mycotoxin contamination and the presence of a mycotoxin binder on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and digestive health in finisher pigs. Sixty-four pigs (38.7 kg (SD 3.48 kg)) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments: (T1) low quality wheat diet, (T2) low quality wheat diet containing 2 g/kg of a mycotoxin binder, (T3) high quality wheat diet, (T4) high quality wheat diet containing 2 g/kg of a mycotoxin binder. The inclusion of wheat was 500 g/kg. The mycotoxin binder used was a Hydrated Sodium-Calcium-Aluminum-Silicate, which also included calcium propionate and calcium formate. The low quality wheat grain had a higher level of zearalenone (233.02 vs. 33.36 μg/kg), aflatoxin (4.08 vs. 2.94 μg/kg) and ochratoxin (28.20 vs. 4.23 μg/kg). Pigs offered the low quality wheat diet had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0.001) and had a reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) (P < 0.05) of nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) compared with pigs offered the high quality wheat diets. The inclusion of a mycotoxin binder improved ADG and ADFI (P < 0.05) and also increased the CATTD of N and GE compared to diets without a mycotoxin binder. Pigs offered the low quality wheat diets had increased (P < 0.05) expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the duodenum and colon and of claudin 2 (CLDN2) (P < 0.001) in the duodenum, compared to pigs offered the high quality wheat diets. Pigs offered diets containing a mycotoxin binder had increased expression of ghrelin (GHRL) (P < 0.05) in the duodenum compared to pigs offered diets without a mycotoxin binder. There was a wheat × mycotoxin binder interaction on the expression of peptide transporter 1 gene (SLC15A1/PEPT1) and sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 gene (SLC5A1/SGLT1) (P < 0.05) in the duodenum. Pigs offered the low quality wheat with a mycotoxin binder had lower expression of SLC15A1/PEPT1 and SLC5A1/SGLT1 expression compared to the low quality wheat diet only. However, there was no response to mycotoxin binder supplementation with the high quality wheat diet. In conclusion, the low quality wheat reduced ADG, ADFI, nutrient digestibility and modified the gene expression of genes involved in intestinal nutrient transport and inflammation. The supplementation of a mycotoxin binder improved ADG, ADFI, nutrient digestibility and also improved digestive health through increases in nutrient transporter and tight junction gene expression.
      336Scopus© Citations 9