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- PublicationAn interactive exercise biofeedback Android application utilizing a single inertial measurement unit to support joint replacement rehabilitationBoomerang Ortho is an Android application developed with the aim to better support patients in their exercise rehabilitation program following total knee replacement. The use of a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the lower leg allows for classification of exercise technique, real-time biofeedback, and both self and remote monitoring of patient data. The prototype application for demonstration is currently undergoing pilot testing prior to an assessment of impact on clinical outcome.
- PublicationInertial sensory data provides depth to clinical measures of dynamic balanceObjectives: Establish the role a single inertial sensor may play in the objective quantification of dynamic postural stability following acute ankle injuries.Background The Y Balance test (YBT) is one of the most commonly utilised clinical dynamic balance assessments. Research has demonstrated the utility of the YBT in identifying balance deficits in those with acute ankle injuries and chronic ankle instability. However, reach distances fail to provide information relating to the quality of balance strategy and dynamic stability. Motion capture systems are often employed to provide micro-level detail pertaining to an individuals postural stability. However, such systems are expensive, lack accessibility, hinder natural movement and require extensive processing expertise. The addition of inertial sensors may allow for the inexpensive, accessible quantification of postural stability in an unconstrained environment.Case Description Forty-two elite under-20 rugby union players were recruited as part of a wider study. Two athletes were identified to have sustained acute ankle injuries two weeks previously; one lateral ankle sprain and one deltoid ligament sprain. A single inertial sensor was mounted at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebra. Participants completed four practice YBTs bilaterally, prior to completing 3 recorded YBTs. Reach distance and inertial sensor data were recorded for each reach excursion.Outcomes When compared to the group mean, both athletes demonstrated no clinically meaningful reduction in reach distances for all three reach directions. However, both athletes demonstrated a higher 95% ellipsoid volume of sway than the healthy control group for all three directions of the YBT when completed on their affected limb.Conclusions Preliminary analysis suggests that inertial sensor data may provide information relating to the quality of dynamic postural stability following an acute ankle injury. Further investigation is required to establish the role that such measures may play in the assessment and management of ankle injuries.
- PublicationAcute ankle sprain injury alters kinematic and centre of pressure measures of postural control during single limb stanceBackground: Upright single-limb stance (SLS) is maintained via integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. The presence of redundancies between these afferents allows the sensorimotor system to simplify a specific task within a number of strategies. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. No current investigation has supplemented kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed SLS tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Objective: To compare centre of pressure (COP) and lower limb postural orientation characteristics of participants with acute LAS to non-injured participants during a SLS task. Design Cross-sectional: Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: 66 participants with acute LAS completed a task of eyes-open SLS on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). 23 of these participants successfully completed the SLS task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of nineteen participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. Main outcome measures: 3D kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints as well as associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path. Results: Between trial analyses of groups revealed significant differences in lower limb kinematics and FD of the COP path for task 2. Post-hoc testing revealed that non-injured control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to LAS participants (injured limb=7.41±6.1◦ vs 1.44±4.8◦; non-injured limb=9.59±8.5◦ vs 2.16±5.6◦), with a corollary of greater FD of the COP path (injured limb=1.39±0.16 vs 1.25±0.14; non-injured limb=1.37±0.21 vs 1.23±0.14). Conclusion: Acute LAS causes bilateral impairment in postural control strategies.
- PublicationThe physiological effects of low level electrical stimulation on short term recovery from supra maximal exercise bouts : a case studyInadequate recovery from short-term, high-intensity bouts of exercise can be a limiting factor to optimal sporting performance . Previous research investigating recovery from intense exercise using various intervention protocols (e.g., active recovery, massage, cold and contrast water therapy, compression suits etc.) have generally found positive results when compared to passive recovery [2,3]. A recent study utilised electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) as an intervention for short-term recovery (< 1 hr) between bouts of intense exercise . They concluded that EMS shows promise as an alternate recovery treatment for lowering blood lactate when compared to passive recovery.
- PublicationThe effects of electrical muscle stimulation training in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease population – a pilot studyExercise training is currently advocated as a therapeutic modality for improving the systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) -including peripheral muscle dysfunction, decreased exercise tolerance, weight loss, depletion of muscle mass and muscle strength and poor health status. Owing to a limited cardiopulmonary reserve, COPD patients are frequently physically unable to tolerate sufficient training intensities which would afford them with the benefits associated with conventional exercise training interventions. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) appears to have a limited demand on ventilatory requirements and dyspnoea, and may be a promising exercise training alternative for patients with COPD.
- PublicationUse of body worn sensors to predict ankle injuries using screening toolsBackground The Single Leg Squat (SLS) is an important screening tool in predicting those at an increased risk of ankle injuries as it relates to landing, running and cutting tasks. However, clinical analysis of this exercise is often completed visually with relatively poor intra-rater reliability. More detailed analysis of SLS completed in biomechanics laboratories is time-consuming and costly. Recent developments in body worn sensors may allow for quick assessments that produce valid and reliable data.Objective To explore a model for leveraging data obtained from wearable sensors to aid in ankle injury risk factor screening.Design A single case study design, with qualitative analysis of quantitative data.Setting University research laboratory.Participants A single participant (female, age = 24 years; height = 158 cm, body mass = 47 kg) was chosen. The participant was familiar with the SLS exercise and had completed it as part of their exercise routine for the past year.Interventions The participant completed 10 left SLS repetitions. These were recorded using the sensors and repetitions where the participant lost balance were noted. Loss of balance was defined as when the subject was unable to maintain single leg stance during the downward or upward phase of the movement and placed their other foot on the ground for support.Main outcome measurements Visual analysis showed signals from the wearable sensors (accelerometer Y and gyroscope Z) were altered when the participant lost their balance compared to signals obtained when the participant maintained balance.Conclusions These preliminary results indicate that body worn sensors may be able to automatize screening tools such as the SLS. An automated system for characterising and quantifying deviations from good form could be developed to aid clinicians and researchers. Such a system would provide objective and reliable data to clinicians and allow researchers to analyse movements quicker and in a more naturalistic setting.
- PublicationThe effects of an electrical muscle stimulation training intervention on physiological measures in a spinal cord injury maleParticipation in aerobic exercise activity is considered necessary for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to reduce the potential development of common co-morbidities associated with SCI such as cardiovascular (CV) disease, reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increases in body fat and decreases in lean body mass. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been advocated as offering a feasible exercise regime to SCI individuals. FES studies have reported improvements in BMD, CV fitness, body composition (BC) and quality of life (QOL), however its application is limited by its effect on muscle fatigue, as well as the need for specialist equipment and training. Recently, researchers have developed a new type of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) system, which appears to overcome the above issues. This system has improved heart rate (HR) and peak muscle oxygen consumption (VO2) within Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) patients, obese and sedentary adults [3,4]. An SCI population may benefit from a similar intervention and justifies further research into the effects this EMS system may have on SCI.
- PublicationDynamic balance deficits in individuals with chronic ankle instability compared to ankle sprain copers 1 year after a first-time lateral ankle sprain injuryPurpose: To quantify the dynamic balance deficits that characterise a group with chronic ankle instability compared to lateral ankle sprain copers and non-injured controls using kinematic and kinetic outcomes. Methods: Forty-two participants with chronic ankle instability and twenty-eight lateral ankle sprain copers were initially recruited within 2 weeks of sustaining a first-time, acute lateral ankle sprain and required to attend our laboratory 1 year later to complete the current study protocol. An additional group of non-injured individuals were also recruited to act as a control group. All participants completed the anterior, posterior-lateral and posterior-medial reach directions of the star excursion balance test. Sagittal plane kinematics of the lower extremity and associated fractal dimension of the centre of pressure path were also acquired. Results: Participants with chronic ankle instability displayed poorer performance in the anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-lateral reach directions compared with controls bilaterally, and in the posterior-lateral direction compared with lateral ankle sprain copers on their ‘involved’ limb only. These performance deficits in the posterior-lateral and posterior-medial directions were associated with reduced flexion and dorsiflexion displacements at the hip, knee and ankle at the point of maximum reach, and coincided with reduced complexity of the centre of pressure path. Conclusion: In comparison with lateral ankle sprain copers and controls, participants with chronic ankle instability were characterised by dynamic balance deficits as measured using the SEBT. This was attested to reduced sagittal plane motions at the hip, knee and ankle joints, and reduced capacity of the stance limb to avail of its supporting base.
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- PublicationRehabilitation Exercise Segmentation for Autonomous Biofeedback Systems with ConvFSMSegmenting physical movements is a key step for any accelerometry-based autonomous biofeedback system oriented to rehabilitation and physiotherapy activities. Fundamentally, this can be reduced to the detection of recurrent patterns, also called motion primitives, in longer inertial signals. Most of the solutions developed in the literature require extensive domain knowledge, or are incapable of scaling to complex motion patterns and new exercises. In this paper, we explore the capabilities of inertial measurement units for the segmentation of upper limb rehabilitation exercises. To do so, we introduce a novel segmentation technique based on Convolutional Neural Networks and Finite State Machines, called ConvFSM. ConvFSM is able to isolate motion primitives from raw streaming data, using very little domain knowledge. We also investigate different combinations of sensors, in order to identify the most effective and flexible setup that could fit a home-based rehabilitation feedback system. Experimental results are presented, based on a dataset obtained from a combination of common upper limb and lower limb exercises.
353Scopus© Citations 5
- PublicationAutomatic Classification of Knee Rehabilitation Exercises Using a Single Inertial Sensor: a Case StudyInertial measurement units have the ability to accurately record the acceleration and angular velocity of human limb segments during discrete joint movements. These movements are commonly used in exercise rehabilitation programmes following orthopaedic surgery such as total knee replacement. This provides the potential for a biofeedback system with data mining technique for patients undertaking exercises at home without physician supervision. We propose to use machine learning techniques to automatically analyse inertial measurement unit data collected during these exercises, and then assess whether each repetition of the exercise was executed correctly or not. Our approach consists of two main phases: signal segmentation, and segment classification. Accurate pre-processing and feature extraction are paramount topics in order for the technique to work. In this paper, we present a classification method for unsupervised rehabilitation exercises, based on a segmentation process that extracts repetitions from a longer signal activity. The results obtained from experimental datasets of both clinical and healthy subjects, for a set of 4 knee exercises commonly used in rehabilitation, are very promising.
462Scopus© Citations 18