Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Overview of the Forensic Investigation of Cloud Services
    Cloud Computing is a commonly used, yet ambiguous term, which can be used to refer to a multitude of differing dynamically allocated services. From a law enforcement and forensic investigation perspective, cloud computing can be thought of as a double edged sword. While on one hand, the gathering of digital evidence from cloud sources can bring with it complicated technical and cross-jurisdictional legal challenges. On the other, the employment of cloud storage and processing capabilities can expedite the forensics process and focus the investigation onto pertinent data earlier in an investigation. This paper examines the state-of-the-art in cloud-focused, digital forensic practises for the collection and analysis of evidence and an overview of the potential use of cloud technologies to provide Digital Forensics as a Service.
      959Scopus© Citations 28
  • Publication
    Towards the Forensic Identification and Investigation of Cloud Hosted Servers through Non-invasive Wiretaps
    When conducting modern cybercrime investigations, evidence has often to be gathered from computer systems located at cloud-based data centres of hosting providers. In cases where the investigation cannot rely on the cooperation of the hosting provider, or where documentation is not available, investigators can often find the identification of which distinct server among many is of interest difficult and extremely time consuming. To address the problem of identifying these servers, in this paper a new approach to rapidly and reliably identify these cloud hosting computer systems is presented. In the outlined approach, a handheld device composed of an embedded computer combined with a method of undetectable interception of Ethernet based communications is presented. This device is tested and evaluated, and a discussion is provided on its usefulness in identifying of server of interest to an investigation.
      376Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Battling the digital forensic backlog through data deduplication
    (IEEE, 2016-08-26)
    In recent years, technology has become truly pervasive in everyday life. Technological advancement can be found in many facets of life, including personal computers, mobile devices, wearables, cloud services, video gaming, web-powered messaging, social media, Internet-connected devices, etc. This technological influence has resulted in these technologies being employed by criminals to conduct a range of crimes - both online and offline. Both the number of cases requiring digital forensic analysis and the sheer volume of information to be processed in each case has increased rapidly in recent years. As a result, the requirement for digital forensic investigation has ballooned, and law enforcement agencies throughout the world are scrambling to address this demand. While more and more members of law enforcement are being trained to perform the required investigations, the supply is not keeping up with the demand. Current digital forensic techniques are arduously time-consuming and require a significant amount of man power to execute. This paper discusses a novel solution to combat the digital forensic backlog. This solution leverages a deduplication-based paradigm to eliminate the reacquisition, redundant storage, and reanalysis of previously processed data.
      24Scopus© Citations 43
  • Publication
    Evaluation of Digital Forensic Process Models with Respect to Digital Forensics as a Service
    (Academic Conferences And Publishing International Limited, 2017-06-12) ; ;
    Digital forensic science is very much still in its infancy, but is becoming increasingly invaluable to investigators. A popular area for research is seeking a standard methodology to make the digital forensic process accurate, robust, and efficient. The first digital forensic process model proposed contains four steps: Acquisition, Identification, Evaluation and Admission. Since then, numerous process models have been proposed to explain the steps of identifying, acquiring, analysing, storage, and reporting on the evidence obtained from various digital devices. In recent years, an increasing number of more sophisticated process models have been proposed. These models attempt to speed up the entire investigative process or solve various of problems commonly encountered in the forensic investigation. In the last decade, cloud computing has emerged as a disruptive technological concept, and most leading enterprises such as IBM, Amazon, Google, and Microsoft have set up their own cloud-based services. In the field of digital forensic investigation, moving to a cloudbased evidence processing model would be extremely beneficial and preliminary attempts have been made in its implementation. Moving towards a Digital Forensics as a Service model would not only expedite the investigative process, but can also result in significant cost savings - freeing up digital forensic experts and law enforcement personnel to progress their caseload. This paper aims to evaluate the applicability of existing digital forensic process models and analyse how each of these might apply to a cloud-based evidence processing paradigm.
      46
  • Publication
    Assessing the Influencing Factors on the Accuracy of Underage Facial Age Estimation
    Swift response to the detection of endangered minors is an ongoing concern for law enforcement. Many child-focused investigations hinge on digital evidence discovery and analysis. Automated age estimation techniques are needed to aid in these investigations to expedite this evidence discovery process, and decrease investigator exposure to traumatic material. Automated techniques also show promise in decreasing the overflowing backlog of evidence obtained from increasing numbers of devices and online services. A lack of sufficient training data combined with natural human variance has been long hindering accurate automated age estimation - especially for underage subjects. This paper presented a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of two cloud age estimation services (Amazon Web Service's Rekognition service and Microsoft Azure's Face API) against a dataset of over 21,800 underage subjects. The objective of this work is to evaluate the influence that certain human biometric factors, facial expressions, and image quality (i.e. blur, noise, exposure and resolution) have on the outcome of automated age estimation services. A thorough evaluation allows us to identify the most influential factors to be overcome in future age estimation systems.
      57Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    BitTorrent Sync: Network Investigation Methodology
    The volume of personal information and data most Internet users find themselves amassing is ever increasing and the fast pace of the modern world results in most requiring instant access to their files. Millions of these users turn to cloud based file synchronisation services, such as Dropbox, Microsoft Skydrive, Apple iCloud and Google Drive, to enable 'always-on' access to their most up-to-date data from any computer or mobile device with an Internet connection. The prevalence of recent articles covering various invasion of privacy issues and data protection breaches in the media has caused many to review their online security practices with their personal information. To provide an alternative to cloud based file backup and synchronisation, BitTorrent Inc. released an alternative cloudless file backup and synchronisation service, named BitTorrent Sync to alpha testers in April 2013. BitTorrent Sync's popularity rose dramatically throughout 2013, reaching over two million active users by the end of the year. This paper outlines a number of scenarios where the network investigation of the service may prove invaluable as part of a digital forensic investigation. An investigation methodology is proposed outlining the required steps involved in retrieving digital evidence from the network and the results from a proof of concept investigation are presented.
      470Scopus© Citations 13