Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Inter-session test-retest reliability of the quantified Y balance test
    The Y Balance test is the most common dynamic balance assessment used in clinical practice and research. However, the traditional measure of performance, the reach distance, fails to provide detailed information pertaining to the control of balance during the reach task. Recent research has demonstrated that a single wearable inertial sensor can capture detailed information pertaining to balance performance during the Y balance test, not captured by the traditional reach distances. To date, no research has been conducted investigating the inter-session test-retest reliability of the inertial sensor instrumented YBT. Thirty -two young healthy adults, aged between 18-40 were recruited as part of this study. Participants completed the quantified YBT protocol during two testing sessions, separated by 7-10 days. The findings from this study demonstrated that 26/36 (anterior), 31/36 (posteromedial) and 33/36 (posterolateral) quantified variables demonstrated good-excellent intra-session test-retest reliability. These findings suggest that the inertial sensor quantified YBT can provide a reliable measure of dynamic balance performance. Further research is required to investigate the capability of the quantified YBT to identify individuals at risk of injury/ disease and track recovery/ response to intervention.
      420Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Inertial Sensor Technology Can Capture Changes in Dynamic Balance Control during the Y Balance Test
    Introduction: The Y Balance Test (YBT) is one of the most commonly utilised clinical dynamicbalance assessments. Research has demonstrated the utility of the YBT in identifying balancedeficits in individuals following lower limb injury. However, quantifying dynamic balancebased on reach distances alone fails to provide potentially important information related tothe quality of movement control and choice of movement strategy during the reaching action.The addition of an inertial sensor to capture more detailed motion data may allow for the inexpensive,accessible quantification of dynamic balance control during the YBT reach excursions.As such, the aim of this study was to compare baseline and fatigued dynamic balancecontrol, using reach distances and 95EV (95% ellipsoid volume), and evaluate the ability of95EV to capture alterations in dynamic balance control, which are not detected by YBT reachdistances. Methods: As part of this descriptive laboratory study, 15 healthy participants completedrepeated YBTs at 20, 10, and 0 min prior to and following a modified 60-s Wingate testthat was used to introduce a short-term reduction in dynamic balance capability. Dynamicbalance was assessed using the standard normalised reach distance method, while dynamicbalance control during the reach attempts was simultaneously measured by means of the95EV derived from an inertial sensor, worn at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebra. Results:Intraclass correlation coefficients for the inertial sensor-derived measures ranged from 0.76to 0.92, demonstrating strong intrasession test-retest reliability. Statistically significant altera-tions (p < 0.05) in both reach distance and the inertial sensor-derived 95EV measure wereobserved immediately post-fatigue. However, reach distance deficits returned to baseline levelswithin 10 min, while 95EV remained significantly increased (p < 0.05) beyond 20 min forall 3 reach distances. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the ability of an inertial sensorderivedmeasure to quantify alterations in dynamic balance control, which are not capturedby traditional reach distances alone. This suggests that the addition of an inertial sensor tothe YBT may provide clinicians and researchers with an accessible means to capture subtlealterations in motor function in the clinical setting.
      227Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Association of dynamic balance with sports related concussion: a prospective cohort study
    Background: Concussion is one of the most common sports-related injuries, with little understood about the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Researchers have yet to evaluate the association between modifiable sensorimotor function variables and concussive injury. Purpose: To investigate the association between dynamic balance performance, a discrete measure of sensorimotor function, and concussive injuries. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 109 elite male rugby union players were baseline tested in dynamic balance performance while wearing an inertial sensor and prospectively followed during the 2016-2017 rugby union season. The sample entropy of the inertial sensor gyroscope magnitude signal was derived to provide a discrete measure of dynamic balance performance. Logistic regression modeling was then used to investigate the association among the novel digital biomarker of balance performance, known risk factors of concussion (concussion history, age, and playing position), and subsequent concussive injury. Results: Participant demographic data (mean 6 SD) were as follows: age, 22.6 6 3.6 years; height, 185 6 6.5 cm; weight, 98.9 612.5 kg; body mass index, 28.9 6 2.9 kg/m2; and leg length, 98.8 6 5.5 cm. Of the 109 players, 44 (40.3%) had a history of concussion, while 21 (19.3%) sustained a concussion during the follow-up period. The receiver operating characteristic analysis for the anterior sample entropy demonstrated a statistically significant area under the curve (0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.76; P \ .05), with the cutoff score of anterior sample entropy 1.2, which maximized the sensitivity (76.2%) and specificity (53.4%) for identifying individuals who subsequently sustained a concussion. Players with suboptimal balance performance at baseline were at a 2.81-greater odds (95% CI, 1.02-7.74) of sustaining a concussion during the rugby union season than were those with optimal balance performance, even when controlling for concussion history. Conclusion: Rugby union players who possess poorer dynamic balance performance, as measured by a wearable inertial sensor during the Y balance test, have a 3-times-higher relative risk of sustaining a sports-related concussion, even when controlling for history of concussion. These findings have important implications for research and clinical practice, as it identifies a potential modifiable risk factor. Further research is required to investigate this association in a large cohort consisting of males and females across a range of sports.
      441Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Objective Classification of Dynamic Balance Using a Single Wearable Sensor
    (SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, 2016-11-09) ; ; ; ; ;
    The Y Balance Test (YBT) is one of the most commonly used dynamic balance assessments in clinical and research settings. This study sought to investigate the ability of a single lumbar inertial measurement unit (IMU) to discriminate between the three YBT reach directions, and between pre and post-fatigue balance performance during the YBT. Fifteen subjects (age: 234, weight: 67.58, height: 1758, BMI: 222) were fitted with a lumbar IMU. Three YBTs were performed on the dominant leg at 0, 10 and 20 minutes. A modified Wingate fatiguing intervention was conducted to introduce a balance deficit. This was followed immediately by three post-fatigue YBTs. Features were extracted from the IMU, and used to train and evaluate the random-forest classifiers. Reach direction classification achieved an accuracy of 97.80%, sensitivity of 97.860.89% and specificity of 98.900.56%. Normal and abnormal balance performance, as influenced by fatigue, was classified with an accuracy of 61.90%-71.43%, sensitivity of 61.90%-69.04% and specificity of 61.90%-78.57% depending on which reach direction was chosen. These results demonstrate that a single lumbar IMU is capable of accurately distinguishing between the different YBT reach directions and can classify between pre and post-fatigue balance with moderate levels of accuracy.
      734Scopus© Citations 16