Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    GIARPS/GRAVITY Survey: Broad-Band 0.44–2.4 Micron High-Resolution Spectra of T-Tauri and Herbig AeBe Stars – Combining High Spatial and High Spectral Resolution Data to Unveil the Inner Disc Physics
    The GIARPS/GRAVITY survey aims to obtain a set of high spatial and spectral resolution data for a sample of T-Tauri and Herbig AeBe stars (∼100 objects) selected from the VLTI/GRAVITY GTO sample of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). GIARPS is a broad-band spectrometer combining HARPS-N and GIANO which allows high-resolution spectra from 0.44 μm (R ∼ 115, 000) to 2.44 μm (R ∼ 50, 000) in one observation. By combining this high spectral resolution with the high spatial resolution (∼1 mas) of GRAVITY, a view of unprecedented detail can be obtained of the innermost regions of circumstellar discs in YSOs spanning a wide range of masses (0.1–5 M⊙) and ages (105–107 yr). The ultimate goal is to model the accretion and ejection mechanisms, and study how they evolve as a function of YSO mass and age, using the spatially and spectrally resolved atomic and molecular lines from the inner gaseous regions.
  • Publication
    Parsec-scale jets driven by high-mass young stellar objects: Connecting the au- and the parsec-scale jet in IRAS 13481-6124
    Context. Protostellar jets in high-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs) play a key role in the understanding of star formation and provide us with an excellent tool to study fundamental properties of HMYSOs. Aims. We aim at studying the physical and kinematic properties of the near-infrared (NIR) jet of IRAS 13481-6124 from au to parsec scales. Methods. Our study includes NIR data from the Very Large Telescope instruments SINFONI, CRIRES, and ISAAC. Information about the source and its immediate environment is retrieved with SINFONI. The technique of spectro-astrometry is performed with CRIRES to study the jet on au scales. The parsec-scale jet and its kinematic and dynamic properties are investigated using ISAAC. Results. The SINFONI spectra in H and K bands are rich in emission lines that are mainly associated with ejection and accretion processes. Spectro-astrometry is applied to the Brγ line, and for the first time, to the Brα line, revealing their jet origin with milliarcsecond-scale photocentre displacements (11-15 au). This allows us to constrain the kinematics of the au-scale jet and to derive its position angle (~216°). ISAAC spectroscopy reveals H2 emission along the parsec-scale jet, which allows us to infer kinematic and dynamic properties of the NIR parsec-scale jet. The mass-loss rate inferred for the NIR jet is Mejec ~ 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 and the thrust is P ~ 10-2 M⊙ yr-1 km s-1, which is roughly constant for the formation history of the young star. A tentative estimate of the ionisation fraction is derived for the massive jet by comparing the radio and NIR mass-loss rates. An ionisation fraction 8% is obtained, which means that the bulk of the ejecta is traced by the NIR jet and that the radio jet only delineates a small portion of it.
    Scopus© Citations 10  292
  • Publication
    Measuring the ionisation fraction in a jet from a massive protostar
    It is important to determine if massive stars form via disc accretion, like their low-mass counterparts. Theory and observation indicate that protostellar jets are a natural consequence of accretion discs and are likely to be crucial for removing angular momentum during the collapse. However, massive protostars are typically rarer, more distant and more dust enshrouded, making observational studies of their jets more challenging. A fundamental question is whether the degree of ionisation in jets is similar across the mass spectrum. Here we determine an ionisation fraction of ~5–12% in the jet from the massive protostar G35.20-0.74N, based on spatially coincident infrared and radio emission. This is similar to the values found in jets from lower-mass young stars, implying a unified mechanism of shock ionisation applies in jets across most of the protostellar mass spectrum, up to at least ~10 solar masses.
    Scopus© Citations 15  404
  • Publication
    Mirror, mirror on the outflow cavity wall: Near-infrared CO overtone disc emission of the high-mass YSO IRAS 11101-5829
    Aims. The inner regions of high-mass protostars are often invisible in the near-infrared, obscured by thick envelopes and discs. We aim to investigate the inner gaseous disc of IRAS 11101-5829 through scattered light from the outflow cavity walls. Methods. We observed the immediate environment of the high-mass young stellar object IRAS 11101-5829 and the closest knots of its jet, HH135-136, with the integral field unit VLT/SINFONI. We also retrieved archival data from the high-resolution long-slit spectrograph VLT/X-shooter. We analysed imaging and spectroscopic observations to discern the nature of the near-infrared CO emission. Results. We detect the first three bandheads of the υ = 2−0 CO vibrational emission for the first time in this object. It is coincident with continuum and Brγ emission and extends up to ~10 000 au to the north-east and ~10 000 au to the south-west. The line profiles have been modelled as a Keplerian rotating disc assuming a single ring in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The model output gives a temperature of ~3000 K, a CO column density of ~1 × 1022 cm−2, and a projected Keplerian velocity vK sin idisc ~ 25 km s−1, which is consistent with previous modelling in other high-mass protostars. In particular, the low value of vK sin idisc suggests that the disc is observed almost face-on, whereas the well-constrained geometry of the jet imposes that the disc must be close to edge-on. This apparent discrepancy is interpreted as the CO seen reflected in the mirror of the outflow cavity wall. Conclusions. From both jet geometry and disc modelling, we conclude that all the CO emission is seen through reflection by the cavity walls and not directly. This result implies that in the case of highly embedded objects, as for many high-mass protostars, line profile modelling alone might be deceptive and the observed emission could affect the derived physical and geometrical properties; in particular the inclination of the system can be incorrectly interpreted.
    Scopus© Citations 11  237