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- PublicationForest Biomass Processing Glossary: English-Czech and Czech-English glossaryPráve je Vám predkládán výkladový slovník zabývající se terminologií vztahující se ke zpracování lesní biomasy. Vysvetlované výrazy jsou rozdeleny do 5 kategorií a to: charakteristika porostu a zdroju, težba a soustredování, zpracování, odvoz a jednotky. V rámci každé z uvedených oblastí jsou výrazy trídeny podle abecedy. Tam, kde byla identifikována synonyma je uprednostnovaný termín vysvetlen a termín, který je dle názoru autoru zastaralý a nevhodný se odkazuje na termín prioritní. Nekteré výklady pojmu jsou podporeny obrazovou prílohou a je umístena ve stredu publikace. We have the pleasure of presenting you with this explanatory dictionary-glossary of in-forest biomass processing related terminology. The explained terms are divided into five categories as follows: description of stand and raw material, logging, processing, haulage and units. In each of these fi elds, the terms are presented in alphabetical order. Where synonyms are identified, an explanation is given of the preferred term and the term which, in the authors’ opinion, is obsolete and inadequate, refers to the priority term. The interpretation of some terms is supported with illustrations in the figure section.
- PublicationFuel efficiency and CO2 emissions of biomass based haulage in Ireland - A case studyThe purpose of this study was to analyse how biomass based haulage in Ireland performed as a measure of efficiency under 4 main criteria; distance travelled, fuel consumption, fuel consumption per unit of biomass hauled and diesel CO2 emissions. The applicability of truck engine diagnostic equipment was tested to analyse the schedule of engine data that could be recorded in real-time from a 5 axle articulated biomass truck. This identified how new on board truck technology in Ireland could be used to monitor data in real-time, specifically fuel consumption, litre/km, litre/ton and distance to allow for informed analysis of how efficient new biomass trucking operations currently are in Ireland. Fleet Management System (FMS) monitoring systems are a relatively new technology in biomass and log transport in Ireland. They are more common place in the food supply chain with refrigerated units travelling across continental Europe where food temperature and truck movements are controlled data from a central dispatch. A GPS asset tracking monitoring system was also installed on the truck over the test period to record trip log data. The BT (biomass truck) was a 5 axle, 2004 DAF XF Euro III 430hp 4*2. Initial results showed that for the BT, the average daily fuel consumption varied from 0.23 L/km to 0.47 L/km. The thresholds of travelled distance were between 20.92 km and 434.91 km respectively with average fuel consumption per tonnage of woodchips of 0.16 L/ton and 5.68 L/ton. When the total daily distance is limited to 1 load within 200 km roundtrip versus 1 load at approximately 400 km trip, the % difference in logistic cost (€/T) is 56%. Delivering 2 loads per 400 km trip shows a 5.4% decrease in logistic costs versus the Trip 1 scenario confirming the increased efficiency of a more localised transport approach. A maximum percentage difference in costs of 45% that exists between a 2 load and 1 load trip occurs for Trip 22 and Trip 5 but this increases to 72% when analysing for 2 load versus 1 load for distances over 400 km. Trip 7 and 12 are both below 50 km and seem to be the exception and to compare could possibly show an element of distortion. The closest logistic cost to Trip 12 is Trip 5 with 113% higher costs confirming how a 50 km roundtrip can impact significantly on lowering biomass transport costs.
660Scopus© Citations 14
- PublicationHow technology can improve the efficiency of excavator-based cable harvesting for potential biomass extraction - A woody productivity resource and cost analysis for IrelandTwo cable logging systems were reviewed to compare the efficiency of potential biomass extraction from remote forest sites in Ireland based on productive machine hour (PMH) and unit cost of operation (€/m3). Three operational scenarios (SC) were analysed where SC I was a three man crew operation (choker setter, the carriage operator and unhooking chokers). SC II was a variation of this with a two man crew operation. SC III was operating radio controlled chokers there was a two man crew (choker setter and carriage operator). The study aims to assess how operations in Ireland perform against previous known cable studies to determine whether the cost of timber extraction on remote forest sites inaccessible for mechanised felling, has a future given the increased demand for wood fibre in Ireland, both from the sawmilling industries and the wood for energy sector. The volume per PMH was recorded at 17.97 for SC I, 15.09 for SC II and 20.58 m3 for SC III. The difference in productivity versus SC III remote controlled chokers is 5.49 m3/PMH for SC II crew and 2.61 m3/PMH for SC I. The decrease in total volume extracted from SCs I and II versus SC III was recorded at 15.69 m3 (15%) and 32.97 m3 (36%) product respectively. In value terms, the unit cost (€/m3) varied from 6.29 (SC I) to 6.43 (SC II) to 4.57 (SC III). When looking at the production unit costs of normal wood energy supply chains in Ireland, the figures are similar ranging from 3.17 €/m3 to 8.01 €/m3. The value of the end product of course will always determine which market the eventually goes to but given that cable log wood fibre has been unthinned and unmaintained then the biomass sector may be an ever increasing demand point in the search for increased woody biomass given that the unit costs can be competitive with other wood energy supply chains.
318Scopus© Citations 9
- PublicationImproving Log Loading Efficiency for Improved Sustainable Transport within the Irish Forest and Biomass SectorIn Ireland, timber and biomass haulage faces the challenge of transporting enough material within strict legal dimensions and gross vehicle weights restrictions for trucks and trailers. The objective of this study was to develop a method to control payload weight by knowing the moisture content of the wood. Weights, volumes, and moisture content were gathered from 100 truckloads of Sitka spruce pulpwood. Truck volume and weight utilization patterns were analyzed based on stacked volume, truck volume, and weights recorded from the weighbridge. Solid/bulk volume conversion factors for the truckloads were estimated indicating the truck’s solid volume capacity to be filled. Trucks were grouped into five conditions based on their configuration—volume capacity and legal maximum payload. A loaded volume fraction was estimated to assess the optimal volume capacity and stanchion height at which the trucks should be loaded. Results showed that 100% of the trucks presented volume underutilization, with a maximum of 27.5 m3 (only 39.85% volume capacity). In contrast, 67% of trucks were overweight while the remaining 33% were under the legal maximum weight. The average solid/bulk volume conversion factor was 0.66 ± 0.013 at 95% confidence level. Depending on the conditions, trucks can be filled to 100% of their volume capacity with wood at an MC from 29% to 55%. The minimum truck volume capacity utilization was 45%. This methodology can be used by truck hauliers, enabling them to determine in-forest the optimum volume and weight of wood to be transported by knowing the moisture content (MC), the wood specie, and using the height of the stanchions of the trailer as reference when loading the truck.
257Scopus© Citations 15