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- Publication[Ru(bpy)3]2+ analogues containing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligandA synthetic procedure is described that provides access to [Ru(bpy)3]2+ analogues in which one bpy ligand is replaced by a C,N-bidentate coordinating carbene-benzimidazole ligand (bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine). These new complexes were prepared by first installing the chelating carbene ligand onto a Ru(cymene) platform and subsequent ligand substitution using bpy or terpy (terpy = 2:2’,6’:2’’-terpyridine). The carbene ligand significantly affects the optical properties of the complex and lowers the ruthenium(II) oxidation potential substantially. Such modifications may be advantageous for the development of new classes of photosensitizer materials.
864Scopus© Citations 48
- PublicationSynthesis, Photo-, and Electrochemistry of Ruthenium Bis(bipyridine) Complexes Comprising a N-heterocyclic Carbene LigandAnalogues of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ were prepared in which one pyridine ligand site is substituted by a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, that is, either by an imidazolylidene with a variable wingtip group R (R = Me, 3a; R = Et, 3b; R = iPr, 3c), or by a benzimidazolylidene (Me wingtip group, 3d), or by a 1,2,3-triazolylidene (Me wingtip group, 3e). All complexes were characterized spectroscopically, photophysically, and electrochemically. An increase of the size of the wingtip groups from Me to Et or iPr groups distorts the octahedral geometry (NMR spectroscopy) and curtails the reversibility of the ruthenium oxidation. NHC ligands with methyl wingtip groups display reversible ruthenium oxidation at a potential that reflects the donor properties of the NHC ligand (triazolylidene > imidazolylidene > benzimidazolylidene). The most attractive properties were measured for the triazolylidene ruthenium complex 3e, featuring the smallest gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in the series (2.41 eV), a slightly red-shifted absorption profile, and reasonable excited-state lifetime (188 ns) when compared to [Ru(bpy)3]2+. These features demonstrate the potential utility of triazolylidene ruthenium complexes as photosensitizers for solar energy conversion.
331Scopus© Citations 94
- PublicationTunable single-site ruthenium catalysts for eﬃcient water oxidationThe catalytic water oxidation activity of mononuclear ruthenium complexes comprising a pyridine-functionalized abnormal triazolylidene ligand can be adjusted by modiﬁcation of the triazolylidene substituents, which is readily achieved through click-type cycloaddition chemistry, aﬀording some of the most active ruthenium catalysts known thus far for water oxidation(TONs > 400, TOFs close to 7000/h).
681Scopus© Citations 129
- PublicationSynthesis of pincer-type N-heterocyclic carbene palladium complexes with a hemilabile ligand and their application in cross-coupling catalysisBenzimidazolium salts containing both a neutral imine and a masked carboxylate functional group for potential metal chelation were prepared. Palladation of the ester-protected ligand afforded a N,C-bidentate carbene complex 4. Subsequent ester hydrolysis preserved the bidentate coordination mode and yielded complex 5 with a pending COOH group exclusively. However, when ester deprotection was carried out prior to metalation, the N,C,O-tridentate pincer-type coordinated palladium complex 7 was obtained. Proton-abstraction of the dangling COOH group in the bidentate ligand of complex 5 by treatment with a base led to the formation of the N,C,O-tridentate coordinated Pd system 7, and inversely, exposure of the tridentate bound Pd complex 7 with acid afforded the N,C-bidentate ligand coordination mode in complex 5, demonstrating hemilability of the oxygen donor site in the pincer ligand. All three palladium(II) complexes 4, 5, and 7 were evaluated in cross-coupling catalysis and revealed distinct activity differences that are dependent on the type of coupling (Suzuki vs. Heck) and the substrate (Ar-Br vs. Ar-Cl). These differences suggest that judicious choice of donor groups in pincer-type complexes is a viable strategy for catalyst optimization.
309Scopus© Citations 26