Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
  • Publication
    Hydrogen permitted lines in the first near-ir spectra of th 28 microjet: Accretion or ejection tracers?
    We report the first near-infrared detection of the bipolar microjet from T Tauri star ThA 15-28 (hereafter Th 28). Spectra were obtained with Very Large Telescope (VLT)/ISAAC for the slit both perpendicular and parallel to the flow to examine jet kinematics and gas physics within the first arcsecond from the star. The jet was successfully detected in bothmolecular and atomic lines. The H2 component was found to be entirely blueshifted around the base of the bipolar jet. It shows that only the blue lobe is emitting in H2 while light is scattered in the direction of the red lobe, highlighting an asymmetric extinction and/or excitation between the two lobes. Consistent with this view, the red lobe is brighter in all atomic lines. Interestingly, the jet was detected not only in [Fe ii], but also in Brγ and Paβ lines. Though considered tracers mainly of accretion, we find that these high excitation hydrogen permitted lines trace the jet as far as 150 AU from the star. This is confirmed in a number of ways: the presence of the [Fe ii] 2.13μm line which is of similarly high excitation; Hi velocities which match the jet [Fe ii] velocities in both the blue and red lobe; and high electron density close to the source of >6 × 104 cm-3 derived from the [Fe ii] 1.64, 1.60μm ratio. These near-infrared data complement Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) optical and near-ultraviolet data for the same target which were used in a jet rotation study, although no rotation signature could be identified here due to insufficient angular resolution. The unpublished HST/STIS Hα emission is included here alongside the other Hi lines. Identifying Brγ and Paβ as tracers of ejection is significant because of the importance of finding strong near-infrared probes close to the star, where forbidden lines are quenched, which will help understand accretion ejection when observed with high spatial resolution instruments such as VLTI/AMBER. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
      316Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    The accretion/ejection paradigm of low mass stars tested with HST
    In the last few years new investigation techniques have allowed us to study in depth the spectacular phenomenon of protostellar jets, and to test the validity of the proposed models for their acceleration. In this contribution we review the current knowledge on the subject, with a special emphasis on the recent achievements obtained thanks to observations at high angular resolution, like those performed at subarcsecond scales with the Hubble Space Telescope. These results have made us able to define more clearly the morphology, kinematics, excitation of the flows on small scales, and, in turn, to derive stringent constraints for the physical processes at work. The novel information acquired puts us in a very good position to plan theoretical and observational studies aimed at understanding if similar accretion/ejection processes are also at work during the formation of Brown Dwarfs. If scaled-down versions of Herbig-Haro jets are found associated to these objects, then it would mean that the wellknown formation scenario of solar–mass stars is truly universal.
  • Publication
    A combined MUSE/X-Shooter study of the TH28 jet
    (Società Astronomica Italiana, 2017-06-09) ; ; ; ;
    Here we present the first results from a MUSE/X-Shooter study of the jet from the classical T Tauri star TH 28. The combination of MUSE and X-Shooter enables us to take advantage of both spectro-imaging and broadband spectroscopy to comprehensively investigate the TH 28 jet. We present a MUSE spectro-image and PV plot of the Hα emission line and use flux ratios from the X-Shooter spectrum to estimate the mass accretion rate at log(Ṁacc) = -9.4. Future work will focus on diagnostic analyses on both sets of data, including estimating the mass outflow rate (Ṁout) and the extinction of the jet.
  • Publication
    The near-UV: The true window on jet rotation
    (Società Astronomica Italiana, 2017-01-01) ; ; ;
    High resolution observations of jet rotation in newly forming stars have the potential to support theories of magneto-centrifugal jet launching. We report a detection of a radial velocity difference across the blue-shifted jet from RY Tau, the direction of which matches the CO disk rotation sense. Now, in 3 of 3 cases, the sense of the near-UV jet gradient matches the disk rotation sense, implying that we are indeed observing jet rotation. It seems the jet core, probed at near-UV wavelengths, is protected by the outer jet layers from kinematic contaminations, and thus represents the only true window on jet rotation.
  • Publication
    Searching for jet rotation in Class 0/I sources observed with GEMINI/GNIRS
    Context. In recent years, there has been a number of detections of gradients in the radial velocity profile across jets from young stars. The significance of these results is considerable. They may be interpreted as a signature of jet rotation about its symmetry axis, thereby representing the only existing observational indications supporting the theory that jets extract angular momentum from star-disk systems. However, the possibility that we are indeed observing jet rotation in pre-main sequence systems is undergoing active debate. Aims. To test the validity of a rotation argument, we must extend the survey to a larger sample, including younger sources. Methods. We present the latest results of a radial velocity analysis on jets from Class 0 and I sources, using high resolution data from the infrared spectrograph GNIRS on GEMINI South. We obtained infrared spectra of protostellar jets HH34, HH 111-H, HH 212 NK1 and SK1. Results. The [Fe II] emission was unresolved in all cases and so Doppler shifts across the jet width could not be accessed. The H2 emission was resolved in all cases except HH 34. Doppler profiles across the molecular emission were obtained, and gradients in radial velocity of typically 3 km s-1 identified. Conclusions. Agreement with previous studies implies they may be interpreted as jet rotation, leading to toroidal velocity and angular momentum flux estimates of 1.5 km s-1 and 1 × 10-5 Ṁ yr-1 AU km s-1 respectively. However, caution is needed. For example, emission is asymmetric across the jets from HH 212 suggesting a more complex interpretation is warranted. Furthermore, observations for HH 212 and HH 111-H are conducted far from the source implying external influences are more likely to confuse the intrinsic flow kinematics. These observations demonstrate the difficulty of conducting this study from the ground, and highlight the necessity for high angular resolution via adaptive optics or space-based facilities.
      244Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    T Tauri Jet Physics Resolved Near the Launching Region with the Hubble Space Telescope
    We present an analysis of the gas physics at the base of jets from five T Tauri stars based on high angular resolution optical spectra, using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST STIS). The spectra refer to a region within 100 AU of the star, i.e., where the collimation of the jet has just taken place. We form position-velocity (PV) images of the line ratios to get a global picture of the flow excitation. We then apply a specialized diagnostic technique to find the electron density, ionization fraction, electron temperature, and total density. Our results are in the form of PV maps of the obtained quantities, in which the gas behavior is resolved as a function of both radial velocity and distance from the jet axis. They highlight a number of interesting physical features of the jet collimation region, including regions of extremely high density, asymmetries with respect to the axis, and possible shock signatures. Finally, we estimate the jet mass and angular momentum outflow rates, both of which are fundamental parameters in constraining models of accretion-ejection structures, particularly if the parameters can be determined close to the jet foot point. Comparing mass flow rates for cases where the mass accretion rate is available in the literature (i.e., for DG Tau, RW Aur, and CW Tau) reveals a mass ejection-to-accretion ratio of 0.01-0.07. Finally, where possible (i.e., for DG Tau and CW Tau), both mass and angular momentum outflow rates are resolved into higher and lower velocity jet material. For the clearer case of DG Tau, this reveals that the more collimated higher velocity component plays a dominant role in mass and angular momentum transport.
      252Scopus© Citations 75
  • Publication
    Further indications of jet rotation in new ultraviolet and optical Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra
    We present survey results that suggest rotation signatures at the base of T Tauri jets. Observations were conducted with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at optical and near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelengths. Results are presented for the approaching jet from DG Tau, CW Tau, HH 30, and the bipolar jet from TH 28. Systematic asymmetries in Doppler shift were detected across the jet, within 100 AU from the star. At optical wavelengths, radial velocity differences were typically (10-25) ± 5 km s-1, while differences in the NUV range were consistently lower, at typically 10 ± 5 km s-1. Results are interpreted as possible rotation signatures. Importantly, there is agreement between the optical and NUV results for DG Tau. Under the assumption of steady magnetocentrifugal acceleration, the survey results lead to estimates for the distance of the jet footpoint from the star, and give values consistent with earlier studies. In the case of DG Tau, for example, we see that the higher velocity component appears to be launched from a distance of 0.2-0.5 AU from the star along the disk plane, while the lower velocity component appears to trace a wider part of the jet launched from as far as 1.9 AU. The results for the other targets are similar. Therefore, if indeed the detected Doppler gradients trace rotation within the jet, then under the assumption of steady MHD ejection, the derived footpoint radii support the existence of magnetized disk winds. However, since we do not resolved the innermost layers of the flow, we cannot exclude the possibility that there also exists an X-wind or stellar wind component. © 2007, The American Astronomical Society, All rights reserved.
      289Scopus© Citations 108
  • Publication
    ALMA Polarimetric Studies of Rotating Jet/Disk Systems
    We have recently obtained polarimetric data at mm wavelengths with ALMA for the young systems DG Tau and CW Tau, for which the rotation properties of jet and disk have been investigated in previous high angular resolution studies. The motivation was to test the models of magneto-centrifugal launch of jets via the determination of the magnetic configuration at the disk surface. The analysis of these data, however, reveals that self-scattering of dust thermal radiation dominates the polarization pattern. It is shown that even if no information on the magnetic field can be derived in this case, the polarization data are a powerful tool for the diagnostics of the properties and the evolution of dust in protoplanetary disks.
  • Publication
    A search for consistent jet and disk rotation signatures in RY tau
    We present a radial velocity study of the RY Tau jet-disk system, designed to determine whether a transfer of angular momentum from disk to jet can be observed. Many recent studies report on the rotation of T Tauri disks and on what may be a signature of T Tauri jet rotation. However, due to observational difficulties, few studies report on both disk and jet within the same system to establish if the senses of rotation match and hence can be interpreted as a transfer of angular momentum. We report a clear signature of Keplerian rotation in the RY Tau disk, based on Plateau de Bure observations. We also report on the transverse radial velocity profile of the RY Tau jet close to the star. We identify two distinct profile shapes: a v-shape, which appears near jet shock positions, and a flat profile, which appears between shocks. We do not detect a rotation signature above 3σ uncertainty in any of our transverse cuts of the jet. Nevertheless, if the jet is currently in steady-state, the errors themselves provide a valuable upper limit on the jet toroidal velocity of 10 km s-1, implying a launch radius of ≤0.45 AU. However, possible contamination of jet kinematics, via shocks or precession, prevents any firm constraint on the jet launch point, since most of its angular momentum could be stored in magnetic form rather than in rotation of matter.
      279Scopus© Citations 25
  • Publication
    Unveiling the Role of Jets in Star Formation
    We describe the role of HST in providing the first and long-awaited observational backing for the role of bipolar jets in the star formation process.