Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Understanding and Attitudes toward Cancer Clinical Trials among Patients with a Cancer Diagnosis: National Study through Cancer Trials Ireland
    Cancer clinical trials (CCTs) are critical to translation and development of better therapies to improve outcomes. CCTs require adequate patient involvement but accrual rates are low globally. Several known barriers impede participation and knowing how subpopulations differ in understanding of CCTs can foster targeted approaches to aid accrual and advance cancer treatments. We conducted the first nationwide survey of 1089 patients attending 14 Irish cancer centres, assessing understanding of fundamental concepts in CCT methodology and factors that influence participation, to help tailor patient support for accrual to CCTs. Two-thirds (66%) of patients reported never having been offered a CCT and only 5% of those not offered asked to participate. Misunderstanding of clinical equipoise was prevalent. There were differences in understanding of randomisation of treatment by age (p < 0.0001), ethnicity (p = 0.035) and marital status (p = 0.013), and 58% of patients and 61% previous CCT participants thought that their doctor would ensure better treatment in CCTs. Females were slightly more risk averse. Males indicated a greater willingness to participate in novel drug trials (p = 0.001, p = 0.003). The study identified disparities in several demographics; older, widowed, living in provincial small towns and fewer years-educated patients had generally poorer understanding of CCTs, highlighting requirements for targeted support in these groups.
      106Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Isoniazid (INH) mono-resistance and tuberculosis (TB) treatment success: analysis of European surveillance data, 2002 to 2014
    (European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC), 2019-03-21) ; ; ; ;
    Introduction: Isoniazid (INH) is an essential drug for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Resistance to INH may increase the likelihood of negative treatment outcome. Aim: We aimed to determine the impact of INH mono-resistance on TB treatment outcome in the European Union/ European Economic Area and to identify risk factors for unsuccessful outcome in cases with INH mono-resistant TB. Methods: In this observational study, we retrospectively analysed TB cases that were diagnosed in 2002–14 and included in the European Surveillance System (TESSy). Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to identify risk factors and correct for clustering of cases within countries. Results: A total of 187,370 susceptible and 7,578 INH mono-resistant TB cases from 24 countries were included in the outcome analysis. Treatment was successful in 74.0% of INH mono-resistant and 77.4% of susceptible TB cases. In the final model, treatment success was lower among INH mono-resistant cases (Odds ratio (OR): 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6–0.9; adjusted absolute difference in treatment success: 5.3%). Among INH mono-resistant TB cases, unsuccessful treatment outcome was associated with age above median (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2–1.5), male sex (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.4), positive smear microscopy (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.4), positive HIV status (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.6–6.5) and a prior TB history (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5–2.2). Conclusions: This study provides evidence for an association between INH mono-resistance and a lower likelihood of TB treatment success. Increased attention should be paid to timely detection and management of INH mono-resistant TB.
      202Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Clinical Decision Support Systems in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review
    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, with more than 2.1 million new diagnoses worldwide every year. Personalised treatment is critical to optimising outcomes for patients with breast cancer. A major advance in medical practice is the incorporation of Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) to assist and support healthcare staff in clinical decision-making, thus improving the quality of decisions and overall patient care whilst minimising costs. The usage and availability of CDSSs in breast cancer care in healthcare settings is increasing. However, there may be differences in how particular CDSSs are developed, the information they include, the decisions they recommend, and how they are used in practice. This systematic review examines various CDSSs to determine their availability, intended use, medical characteristics, and expected outputs concerning breast cancer therapeutic decisions, an area that is known to have varying degrees of subjectivity in clinical practice. Utilising the methodology of Kitchenham and Charter, a systematic search of the literature was performed in Springer, Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, ACM, IEEE, and Scopus. An overview of CDSS which supports decision-making in breast cancer treatment is provided along with a critical appraisal of their benefits, limitations, and opportunities for improvement.
      235Scopus© Citations 34