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- PublicationAn exploration of sleep and family factors in young children at familial risk for ADHDObjective: The aim of the current study was to examine relations between sleep problems and family factors and early markers of ADHD in young children with and without a familial risk for ADHD. Methods: Differences in sleep behavior and family functioning in children under 6 years with (n = 72) and without (n = 139) a familial risk for ADHD were investigated. The influence of family and sleep factors on the development of early temperament markers of ADHD (effortful control and negative affect) was explored. Parents/caregivers completed questionnaires on family functioning, child sleep behavior, and general regulatory behaviors. Results: A significant difference was observed between high-risk and low-risk groups for family functioning in the infant/toddler (<3 years) and preschool (>3 years) cohorts. Parents of infants/toddlers in the high-risk group reported poorer infant sleep. However, there were no sleep differences reported for the preschool cohort. Family functioning was found to predict effortful control, while sleep quality predicted negative affect. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight potential family and sleep issues for young children with a familial history of ADHD and the potential influence of these factors on early temperament markers of ADHD. Future research should explore these relations further in order to better establish whether early sleep and family interventions could mitigate later ADHD symptomatology.
Scopus© Citations 3 424
- PublicationSensory modulation difficulties and assessment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic reviewThis systematic review aims to (1) establish how different types of assessment measure sensory modulation difficulties in children with ADHD, and (2) to examine whether sensory modulation difficulties can be separated from ADHD symptomatology. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018091730). PRISMA guidelines were used. Three databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL) were searched using a predetermined search string from 1980 to 2020. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Sensory modulation difficulties are more likely to be reported when caregiver-report or behavioural measures are used, relative to physiological methods. Despite the focus to date on difficulties in auditory and tactile processing in this patient population, the reported studies show no evidence for these difficulties being more prevalent than difficulties in other sensory domains. Caregiver reports show evidence for differences in children with sensory modulation difficulties and ADHD, and those with ADHD only. This review reports variability in the prevalence of sensory modulation difficulties in children with ADHD that is dependent on the tools used to measure this domain. Approaches to the assessment of sensory modulation, and the implications for clinical practice, are considered.
Scopus© Citations 2 255
- PublicationSensory modulation and negative affect in children at familial risk of ADHDBackground/aims: Sensory modulation difficulties are commonly reported in patients with ADHD, however there has been little focus on the development of these difficulties in young children at a higher risk of later ADHD diagnosis. This study investigated whether children with a familial history of ADHD show greater sensory modulation difficulties. We also explored whether sensory modulation was linked to negative affectivity, which has been highlighted as a potential early marker of ADHD. Methods: Parents of children under 6 years with a family history of ADHD (n = 65) and no family history (n = 122) completed questionnaires on sensory modulation and temperament. Results: Children from families with ADHD were reported to display extreme patterns of hyperresponsiveness and hyporesponsiveness, relative to controls. No differences emerged for the sensory seeking domain. Some children within the high-risk group reported high scores across all three sensory modulation patterns. Regression analysis revealed that hyperresponsiveness predicted higher levels of negative affect. Conclusions/implications: This study is the first to report greater sensory modulation difficulties in children at familial risk of ADHD. Future research should establish whether children with sensory modulation and temperament difficulties in early childhood are more vulnerable to developing ADHD.
206Scopus© Citations 3