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- PublicationLiveness Through the Lens of Agency and CausalityLiveness is a well-known problem with Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs). When used in performances, DMIs provide less visual information than acoustic instruments, preventing the audience from understanding how the musicians influence the music. In this paper, we look at this issue through the lens of causality. More specifically, we investigate the attribution of causality by an external observer to a performer, relying on the theory of apparent mental causation. We suggest that the perceived causality between a performer’s gestures and the musical result is central to liveness. We present a framework for assessing attributed causality and agency to a performer, based on a psychological theory which suggests three criteria for inferred causality. These criteria then provide the basis of an experimental study investigating the effect of visual augmentations on audience’s inferred causality. The results provide insights on how the visual component of performances with DMIs impacts the audience’s causal inferences about the performer. In particular we show that visual augmentations help highlight the influence of the musician when parts of the music are automated, and help clarify complex mappings between gestures and sounds. Finally we discuss the potential wider implications for assessing liveness in the design of new musical interfaces.
- PublicationPersonal Investigator: a Therapeutic 3D Game for TeenagersThis position paper describes the implementation and initial findings of a game called Personal Investigator (PI). PI is an online 3D detective game that implements a model of Brief Solution Focused Therapy (BSFT). It aims to help teenagers overcome mental health problems and engage with traditional mental health care services. It is predicted that the combination of goal-oriented gaming with a model of goal-oriented therapy will help to attract and sustain the interest of teenagers, a group that therapists often have difficulty engaging with. PI is the first game to integrate this established psychotherapy approach into an engaging online 3D game.
- PublicationUsing Emotional Attachment as a Lens to Improve Users E-reading ExperienceThis paper explores ways to improve e-reading by examining theexperience of people who have developed a sense of attachment to their ereaders.Nine participants who reported experiencing emotional attachmentcompleted a semi-structured interview asking them about their experiences withe-readers and e-reading. Thematic analysis led to three main themes beingidentified as important to their experiences: projection of identity, control overthe device, and environmental factors. We examine how these themes suggestthat peoples experiences of reading in traditional and electronic formats areheavily interlinked. We also discuss how these themes resonate with the widerattachment literature. Based on our findings we suggest the need to support theexpression of identity through configuration and display in the e-readerexperience, as well as exploring ways devices can be used to control andpersonalize the reading environment.
- PublicationPersonalized, Health-Aware Recipe Recommendation: An Ensemble Topic Modeling Based ApproachFood choices are personal and complex and have a significant impact on our long-term health and quality of life. By helping users to make informed and satisfying decisions, Recommender Systems (RS) have the potential to support users in making healthier food choices. Intelligent users-modeling is a key challenge in achieving this potential. This paper investigates Ensemble Topic Modelling (EnsTM) based Feature Identification techniques for efficient user-modeling and recipe recommendation. It builds on findings in EnsTM to propose a reduced data representation format and a smart user-modeling strategy that makes capturing user-preference fast, efficient and interactive. This approach enables personalization, even in a cold-start scenario. We compared three EnsTM based variations through a user study with 48 participants, using a large-scale, real-world corpus of 230,876 recipes, and compare against a conventional Content Based (CB) approach. EnsTM based recommenders performed significantly better than the CB approach. Besides acknowledging multi-domain contents such as taste, demographics and cost, our proposed approach also considers user’s nutritional preference and assists them finding recipes under diverse nutritional categories. Furthermore, it provides excellent coverage and enables implicit understanding of user’s food practices. Subsequent analysis also exposed correlation between certain features and healthier lifestyle.
- PublicationPesky gNATs: Using Games to Support Mental Health Interventions for AdolescentsThis position paper gives a brief overview of a long- term and ongoing series of projects focused on the design and evaluation of computer games that can support mental health interventions with young adolescents. The work has its origins in a HCI project, but has evolved into a long-term interdisciplinary collaboration involving game designers, computer scientists and clinical psychologists, amongst others. It has resulted in a series of computer games and mobile apps that support a range of interventions including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for depression and anxiety, mindfulness-based CBT, an extended intervention CBT for adolescents experiencing trauma, and a CBT intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities. The games and mobile apps have been widely distributed and have been evaluated through randomised controlled trials in clinical settings. Here we briefly describe each game; the overall design process, motivation, and theoretical background; the results of key evaluations; some of our core lessons.
- PublicationDeveloping Skills for Social and Emotional WellbeingPositive social and emotional well-being are essential for peoples' general health and quality of life. This workshop will bring together an inter-disciplinary community of well-being researchers, designers and practitioners to explore how digital technology can increase well-being by enabling users to develop new skills, build on existing personal strengths or social support, and promote self-efficacy more generally. We will jointly reach a better understanding of the opportunities that technology can bring for skills development across a broad range of contexts. Our aim is to consider how digital technology can support well-being skills for the general public and also for specific, at-need groups including the care givers of people coping with irreversible loss of mental or physical capacity and psycho-education for people experiencing mental health difficulties
389Scopus© Citations 6
- PublicationYoung People Seeking Help Online for Mental Health: Cross-Sectional Survey StudyBackground: Young people are particularly vulnerable to experiencing mental health difficulties, but very few seek treatment or help during this time. Online help-seeking may offer an additional domain where young people can seek aid for mental health difficulties, yet our current understanding of how young people seek help online is limited. Objective: This was an exploratory study which aimed to investigate the online help-seeking behaviors and preferences of young people. Methods: This study made use of an anonymous online survey. Young people aged 18-25, living in Ireland, were recruited through social media ads on Twitter and Facebook and participated in the survey. Results: A total of 1308 respondents completed the survey. Many of the respondents (80.66%; 1055/1308) indicated that they would use their mobile phone to look online for help for a personal or emotional concern. When looking for help online, 82.57% (1080/1308) of participants made use of an Internet search, while 57.03% (746/1308) made use of a health website. When asked about their satisfaction with these resources, 36.94% (399/1080) indicated that they were satisfied or very satisfied with an Internet search while 49.33% (368/746) indicated that they were satisfied or very satisfied with a health website. When asked about credibility, health websites were found to be the most trustworthy, with 39.45% (516/1308) indicating that they found them to be trustworthy or very trustworthy. Most of the respondents (82.95%; 1085/1308) indicated that a health service logo was an important indicator of credibility, as was an endorsement by schools and colleges (54.97%; 719/1308). Important facilitators of online help-seeking included the anonymity and confidentiality offered by the Internet, with 80% (1046/1308) of the sample indicating that it influenced their decision a lot or quite a lot. A noted barrier was being uncertain whether information on an online resource was reliable, with 55.96% (732/1308) of the respondents indicating that this influenced their decision a lot or quite a lot. Conclusions: Findings from this survey suggest that young people are engaging with web-based mental health resources to assist them with their mental health concerns. However, levels of satisfaction with the available resources vary. Young people are engaging in strategies to assign credibility to web-based resources, however, uncertainty around their reliability is a significant barrier to online help-seeking.
371Scopus© Citations 32
- PublicationEmpirically derived user attributes for the design of home healthcare technologiesDesigning effective home healthcare technologies is a complex task. In order to succeed, it is important to look beyond purely technology-driven solutions and to develop technologies and services that are flexible and reflect a sensitive understanding of the diverse users of such systems. The key contribution of this paper is to introduce 15 empirically derived attributes that can help designers to build a more detailed understanding of the potential users of home healthcare systems. The attributes are spread across four broad themes: technology in the home, experiences of technology, experiences of health and care, and thoughts about smart home technology for health and care. These themes and attributes emerged from an ethnographic study in which we interviewed people across 15 households. All interviews took place in people’s homes and were supplemented by home technology tours and cultural probes. It is intended that the 15 attributes be used in conjunction with demographic and household data to build a richer picture of personal experiences of home, health, and technology in real-life contexts. The aim was to provide an inclusive framework, based on empirically derived attributes, that helps to inform an overall user-centred design approach. To demonstrate one application of the attributes in design, the paper provides in-depth example of their use in the development of a rich set of data-driven personas.
254Scopus© Citations 26
- PublicationGamification of Cognitive Assessment and Cognitive Training: A Systematic Review of Applications and EfficacyBackground: Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating, and repetitive, which often leads to participant disengagement. This, in turn, may negatively impact data quality and/or reduce intervention effects. However, gamification may provide a possible solution. If game design features can be incorporated into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then data quality, intervention effects, and participant engagement may be improved. Objectives: This systematic review aims to explore and evaluate the ways in which gamification has already been used for cognitive training and assessment purposes. We hope to answer 3 questions: (1) Why have researchers opted to use gamification? (2) What domains has gamification been applied in? (3) How successful has gamification been in cognitive research thus far? Methods: We systematically searched several Web-based databases, searching the titles, abstracts, and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games) AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*). Searches included papers published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Results: Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a range of disorders and cognitive domains. We identified 7 reasons for researchers opting to gamify their cognitive training and testing. We found that working memory and general executive functions were common targets for both gamified assessment and training. Gamified tests were typically validated successfully, although mixed-domain measurement was a problem. Gamified training appears to be highly engaging and does boost participant motivation, but mixed effects of gamification on task performance were reported. Conclusions: Heterogeneous study designs and typically small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both gamified training and testing. Nevertheless, careful application of gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and yet scientifically valid cognitive assessments, and it is likely worthwhile to continue to develop gamified cognitive tasks in the future.
505Scopus© Citations 218
- PublicationPrivacy, boundaries and smart homes for health: An ethnographic studyThis article explores how people negotiate borders and boundaries within the home, in the context of health and the introduction of new technologies. We draw on an ethnographic study involving a socially diverse group of people, which included people with experience of telecare or smart home energy systems. Participants engaged in various strategies to regulate the borders of their home, even though new technologies have begun to change the nature of these borders. Participants managed health conditions but also their use of technology through boundary work that permitted devices to be more or less visible and integrated within the home. Findings highlight that if smart healthcare technologies are to be accepted in the home then there is a need for mechanisms that allow people to control the interpretation of data and flow of information generated about them and their households.
293Scopus© Citations 31