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    A systematic review of metabolite biomarkers of schizophrenia
    Current diagnosis of schizophrenia relies exclusively on the potentially subjective interpretation of clinical symptoms and social functioning as more objective biological measurement and medical diagnostic tests are not presently available. The use of metabolomics in the discovery of disease biomarkers has grown in recent years. Metabolomic methods could aid in the discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia. This systematic review focuses on biofluid metabolites associated with schizophrenia. A systematic search of Web of Science and Ovid Medline databases was conducted and 63 studies investigating metabolite biomarkers of schizophrenia were included. A review of these studies revealed several potential metabolite signatures of schizophrenia including reduced levels of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs), vitamin E and creatinine; and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation metabolites and glutamate. Further research is needed to validate these biomarkers and would benefit from large cohort studies and more homogeneous and well-defined subject groups.
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