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    Simulation of Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation Control Schemes for Suppression of Pathological Beta Oscillations in Parkinsons Disease
    This study presents a computational model of closed-loop control of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) to investigate clinically viable control schemes for suppressing pathological beta-band activity. Closed-loop DBS for PD has shown promising results in preliminary clinical studies and offers the potential to achieve better control of patient symptoms and side effects with lower power consumption than conventional open-loop DBS. However, extensive testing of algorithms in patients is difficult. The model presented provides a means to explore a range of control algorithms in silico and optimize control parameters before preclinical testing. The model incorporates (i) the extracellular DBS electric field, (ii) antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent fibers, (iii) the LFP detected at non-stimulating contacts on the DBS electrode and (iv) temporal variation of network beta-band activity within the thalamo-cortico-basal ganglia loop. The performance of on-off and dual-threshold controllers for suppressing beta-band activity by modulating the DBS amplitude were first verified, showing levels of beta suppression and reductions in power consumption comparable with previous clinical studies. Proportional (P) and proportional-integral (PI) closed-loop controllers for amplitude and frequency modulation were then investigated. A simple tuning rule was derived for selecting effective PI controller parameters to target long duration beta bursts while respecting clinical constraints that limit the rate of change of stimulation parameters. Of the controllers tested, PI controllers displayed superior performance for regulating network beta-band activity whilst accounting for clinical considerations. Proportional controllers resulted in undesirable rapid fluctuations of the DBS parameters which may exceed clinically tolerable rate limits. Overall, the PI controller for modulating DBS frequency performed best, reducing the mean error by 83% compared to DBS off and the mean power consumed to 25% of that utilized by open-loop DBS. The network model presented captures sufficient physiological detail to act as a surrogate for preclinical testing of closed-loop DBS algorithms using a clinically accessible biomarker, providing a first step for deriving and testing novel, clinically suitable closed-loop DBS controllers.
      151Scopus© Citations 29