Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Publication
    Obesity is common in chronic kidney disease and associates with greater antihypertensive usage and proteinuria: evidence from a cross-sectional study in a tertiary nephrology centre
    Obesity is a treatable risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression. We audited the reporting of body-mass index in nephrology outpatient clinics to establish the characteristics of individuals with obesity in nephrology practice. Body-mass index, clinical information and biochemical measures were recorded for patients attending clinics between 3rd August, 2018 and 18th January, 2019. Inferential statistics and Pearson correlations were used to investigate relationships between body-mass index, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and proteinuria. Mean ± SD BMI was 28.6 ± 5.8 kg/m2 (n = 374). Overweight and obesity class 1 were more common in males (P = .02). Amongst n = 123 individuals with obesity and chronic kidney disease, mean ± SD age, n (%) female and median[IQR] eGFR were 64.1 ± 14.2 years, 52 (42.3%) and 29.0[20.5] mL/min/BSA, respectively. A positive correlation between increasing body-mass index and proteinuria was observed in such patients (r = 0.21, P = .03), which was stronger in males and those with CKD stages 4 and 5. Mean body-mass index was 2.3 kg/m2 higher in those treated with 4-5 versus 0-1 antihypertensives (P = .03). Amongst n = 59 patients with obesity, chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes, 2 (3.5%) and 0 (0%) were prescribed a GLP-1 receptor analogue and SGLT2-inhibitor, respectively. Our data provides a strong rationale not only for measuring body-mass index but also for acting on the information in nephrology practice, although prospective studies are required to guide treatment decisions in people with obesity and chronic kidney disease.
  • Publication
    Impact of Metabolic Surgery on Renal Injury in Pre-Clinical Models of Diabetic Kidney Disease
    Background: Surgical approaches to the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, most notably the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure, have been shown to be renoprotective, reducing the incidence of albuminuria and end-stage kidney disease over 15- to 20-year follow-up in patients with obesity. The tissue level effects of metabolic surgery on the diabetic kidney are not easily interrogated in clinical samples. However, elucidation of the cellular and molecular basis for the renoprotective effects of metabolic surgery is now emerging from a body of pre-clinical work in rodent models of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Summary: Experimental metabolic surgery (RYGB, sleeve gastrectomy [SG], Roux-en-Y oesophagojejunostomy, and duodenojejunal bypass) exerts a pronounced albuminuria-lowering effect in rat models of DKD. Following RYGB in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, glomerular histology is improved as demonstrated by reductions in podocyte stress, glomerulomegaly, and glomerulosclerosis. Glomerular ultrastructure improves after RYGB and after SG, manifested by quantifiable reductions in podocyte foot process effacement. The transcriptional programme underpinning these structural improvements has been characterized at the pathway level using RNA sequencing and is associated with a significant reduction in the activation of inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Key Messages: Experimental metabolic surgery reduces biochemical, histological, and molecular indices of DKD. These pre-clinical data support a growing interest in the potential utility of metabolic surgery as a therapeutic approach to slow renal functional decline in patients with obesity and DKD.
      86Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Urinary Metabolomic Changes Accompanying Albuminuria Remission following Gastric Bypass Surgery for Type 2 Diabetic Kidney Disease
    In the Microvascular Outcomes after Metabolic Surgery randomised clinical trial (MOMS RCT, NCT01821508), combined metabolic surgery (gastric bypass) plus medical therapy (CSM) was superior to medical therapy alone (MTA) as a means of achieving albuminuria remission at 2-year follow-up in patients with obesity and early diabetic kidney disease (DKD). In the present study, we assessed the urinary 1H-NMR metabolome in a subgroup of patients from both arms of the MOMS RCT at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Whilst CSM and MTA both reduced the urinary excretion of sugars, CSM generated a distinctive urinary metabolomic profile characterised by increases in host–microbial co-metabolites (N-phenylacetylglycine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA)) and amino acids (arginine and glutamine). Furthermore, reductions in aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), as well as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and related catabolites (valine, leucine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, and 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate), were observed following CSM but not MTA. Improvements in BMI did not correlate with improvements in metabolic and renal indices following CSM. Conversely, urinary metabolites changed by CSM at 6 months were moderately to strongly correlated with improvements in blood pressure, glycaemia, triglycerides, and albuminuria up to 24 months following treatment initiation, highlighting the potential involvement of these shifts in the urinary metabolomic profile in the metabolic and renoprotective effects of CSM.
      105Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Parallel assessment of albuminuria and plasma sTNFR1 in people with type 2 diabetes and advanced chronic kidney disease provides accurate prognostication of the risks of renal decline and death
    Identification of people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease at high-risk of early mortality is a priority to guide intensification of therapy. We aimed to investigate the complementary prognostic value of baseline urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) and plasma soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR1) with respect to early mortality and renal functional decline in a population with type 2 diabetes and advanced chronic kidney disease. We measured plasma sTNFR1 in people with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol) at 2 hospital sites in Dublin between October 15th, 2014 and July 17th, 2015. In a subgroup of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease at baseline (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/BSA) (n = 118), we collected clinical and longitudinal laboratory data to investigate relationships between sTNFR1 and renal and mortality endpoints by multivariable linear mixed-effects models and Cox proportional hazards regression models. The cohort was 64% male and 97% Caucasian. Mean age was 74 years, with a median type 2 diabetes duration of 16 years. Mean CKD-EPI eGFR was 42 mL/min/BSA and median [IQR] uACR was 3 [11] mg/mmol. Twenty-three (39%) people in quartiles 3 and 4 for plasma sTNFR1 died over 4-year follow-up. After adjustment for clinical variables, annual CKD-EPI eGFR decreased by − 0.56 mL/min/BSA/year for each logarithm unit increase in baseline uACR, corresponding to an annual loss of renal function of 3% per year. Furthermore, elevated uACR, but not sTNFR1, increased the risk of ≥ 40% decline in CKD-EPI eGFR (HR 1.5, p = 0.001) and doubling of serum creatinine (HR 2.0, p < 0.001). Plasma sTNFR1 did not predict a more negative trajectory in eGFR slope. However, for those people in quartiles 3 and 4 for plasma sTNFR1, an increased risk of incident mortality was detected (HR 4.9, p = 0.02). No such association was detected for uACR. In this elderly cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease, sTNFR1 predicted short-to-medium term mortality risk but not risk of progressive renal functional decline. In contrast, parallel assessment of uACR predicted renal functional decline but not mortality, highlighting the complementary prognostic information provided by both parameters.
      73Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Protocol for a preclinical systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological targeting of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in experimental renal injury
    Introduction Impaired lipid metabolism in the renal tubule plays a prominent role in the progression of renal fibrosis following acute kidney injury (AKI) and in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are promising druggable targets to mitigate renal fibrosis by redirecting metabolism, including restoration of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) capacity. We aim to synthesise evidence from preclinical studies of pharmacological PPAR targeting in experimental renal injury, and inform the design of future studies evaluating PPAR-mediated restoration of FAO in AKI and CKD.
      45Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Metabolic Surgery to Treat Obesity in Diabetic Kidney Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease, and End-Stage Kidney Disease; What Are the Unanswered Questions?
    Obesity is a major factor in contemporary clinical practice in nephrology. Obesity accelerates the progression of both diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease and, in renal transplantation, both recipient and donor obesity increase the risk of allograft complications. Obesity is thus a major driver of renal disease progression and a barrier to deceased and living donor kidney transplantation. Large observational studies have highlighted that metabolic surgery reduces the incidence of albuminuria, slows chronic kidney disease progression, and reduces the incidence of end-stage kidney disease over extended follow-up in people with and without type 2 diabetes. The surgical treatment of obesity and its metabolic sequelae has therefore the potential to improve management of diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease and aid in the slowing of renal decline toward end-stage kidney disease. In the context of patients with end-stage kidney disease, although complications of metabolic surgery are higher, absolute event rates are low and it remains a safe intervention in this population. Pre-transplant metabolic surgery increases access to kidney transplantation in people with obesity and end-stage kidney disease. Metabolic surgery also improves management of metabolic complications post-kidney transplantation, including new-onset diabetes. Procedure selection may be critical to mitigate the risks of oxalate nephropathy and disruption to immunosuppressant pharmacokinetics. Metabolic surgery may also have a role in the treatment of donor obesity, which could increase the living kidney donor pool with potential downstream impact on kidney paired exchange programmes. The present paper provides a comprehensive coverage of the literature concerning renal outcomes in clinical studies of metabolic surgery and integrates findings from relevant mechanistic pre-clinical studies. In so doing the key unanswered questions for the field are brought to the fore for discussion.
      48Scopus© Citations 21
  • Publication
    Impact of intentional weight loss on diabetic kidney disease
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity constitute interwoven pandemics challenging healthcare systems in developed countries, where diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Obesity accelerates renal functional decline in people with T2DM. Intentional weight loss (IWL) strategies in this population hold promise as a means of arresting DKD progression. In the present paper, we summarize the impact of IWL strategies (stratified by lifestyle intervention, medications, and metabolic surgery) on renal outcomes in obese people with DKD. We reviewed the Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases for relevant randomized control trials and observational studies published between August 1, 2018 and April 15, 2019. We found that IWL improves renal outcomes in the setting of DKD and obesity. Rate of progression of DKD slows with IWL, but varying outcome measures among studies makes direct comparison difficult. Furthermore, established means of estimating renal function are imperfect owing to loss of lean muscle mass with IWL strategies. The choice of optimal IWL strategy needs to be individualized; future work should establish the comparative efficacy of IWL strategies in obese people with DKD to better inform such decisions.
      38Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Medications Activating Tubular Fatty Acid Oxidation Enhance the Protective Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in a Rat Model of Early Diabetic Kidney Disease
    Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) improves biochemical and histological parameters of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Targeted adjunct medical therapy may enhance renoprotection following RYGB. Methods: The effects of RYGB and RYGB plus fenofibrate, metformin, ramipril, and rosuvastatin (RYGB-FMRR) on metabolic control and histological and ultrastructural indices of glomerular and proximal tubular injury were compared in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague Dawley (ZDSD) rat model of DKD. Renal cortical transcriptomic (RNA-sequencing) and urinary metabolomic (1H-NMR spectroscopy) responses were profiled and integrated. Transcripts were assigned to kidney cell types through in silico deconvolution in kidney single-nucleus RNA-sequencing and microdissected tubular epithelial cell proteomics datasets. Medication-specific transcriptomic responses following RYGB-FMRR were explored using a network pharmacology approach. Omic correlates of improvements in structural and ultrastructural indices of renal injury were defined using a molecular morphometric approach. Results: RYGB-FMRR was superior to RYGB alone with respect to metabolic control, albuminuria, and histological and ultrastructural indices of glomerular injury. RYGB-FMRR reversed DKD-associated changes in mitochondrial morphology in the proximal tubule to a greater extent than RYGB. Attenuation of transcriptomic pathway level activation of pro-fibrotic responses was greater after RYGB-FMRR than RYGB. Fenofibrate was found to be the principal medication effector of gene expression changes following RYGB-FMRR, which led to the transcriptional induction of PPARα-regulated genes that are predominantly expressed in the proximal tubule and which regulate peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). After omics integration, expression of these FAO transcripts positively correlated with urinary levels of PPARα-regulated nicotinamide metabolites and negatively correlated with urinary tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Changes in FAO transcripts and nicotinamide and TCA cycle metabolites following RYGB-FMRR correlated strongly with improvements in glomerular and proximal tubular injury. Conclusions: Integrative multi-omic analyses point to PPARα-stimulated FAO in the proximal tubule as a dominant effector of treatment response to combined surgical and medical therapy in experimental DKD. Synergism between RYGB and pharmacological stimulation of FAO represents a promising combinatorial approach to the treatment of DKD in the setting of obesity.
      91Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Impact of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular and renal complications of diabetes: a focus on clinical outcomes and putative mechanisms
    Introduction: Cardiovascular and renal disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is associated with improved long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Areas covered: All major case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trial studies of bariatric surgery in adults with T2DM were screened and data on prespecified cardiovascular and renal outcomes collated. Bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, albuminuria and progressive chronic kidney disease. Patients with poorer glycemic control and established microvascular disease preoperatively may stand to benefit the most from the surgical approach. Reduced sympathetic drive, remission of glomerular hypertension, enhanced natriuresis, gut microbiota shifts, reduced systemic and renal inflammation, improved lipoprotein profiles, and reductions in chronic cardiac remodeling may all be implicated. Expert commentary: Ongoing RCTs of bariatric surgery selectively recruiting patients with class 1 obesity and established microvascular complications of diabetes will help to better characterize which subgroups of patients benefit most from this effective therapy.
      80Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Validating the association between plasma tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 levels and the presence of renal injury and functional decline in patients with Type 2 diabetes
    AIMS: Elevated plasma soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) predicts long-term progression of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the association between elevated TNFR1 and the presence of renal disease in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus registering a haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >48mmol/mol despite medical therapy. METHODS: Using sensitivity, specificity and regression analyses we interrogated the association between plasma TNFR1 and presence of chronic kidney disease as assessed by the presence of microalbuminuria and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60ml/min/1.73m2 (stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease). The association of TNFR1 with C-reactive protein and leptin-adiponectin ratio as plasma markers of systemic inflammation and adipose stress respectively was also investigated. RESULTS: Upper quartile TNFR1 is independently associated with elevated urinary albumin-creatinine ratios, reductions in eGFR and strongly predicts the presence of stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease in regression modelling. Elevated TNFR1 levels are associated with increased plasma C-reactive protein and augmented leptin-adiponectin ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms plasma TNFR1 as a surrogate of renal structural and functional impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Association of TNFR1 with markers of systemic inflammation and adipose stress indicates that TNFR1 may be a biomarker of these processes as components of the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease.
      340Scopus© Citations 11