Now showing 1 - 10 of 29
  • Publication
    Co-conditioning of the anaerobic digested sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant with alum sludge : benefit of phosphorus reduction in reject water
    (Water Environment Federation, 2007-12) ; ; ;
    In this study, alum sludge was introduced into co-conditioning and dewatering with an anaerobic digested activated sludge to examine the role of the alum sludge in improving the dewaterbility of the mixed sludge and also in immobilizing phosphorus in the reject water. Experiments have demonstrated that the optimal mix ratio for the two sludges is 2:1 (anaerobic digested sludge: alum sludge; volume basis), and this can bring about 99% phosphorus reduction in the reject water through the adsorption of phosphorus by Al in the sludge. The phosphorus loading in wastewater treatment plants is itself derived from the recycling of reject water during the wastewater treatment process. Consequently, this co-conditioning and dewatering strategy can achieve a significant reduction in phosphorus loading in wastewater treatment plants. In addition, the use of the alum sludge can beneficially enhance the dewaterbility of the resultant mixed sludge by decreasing both the SRF and the CST, due to the alum sludge acting as a skeleton builder. Experiments have also demonstrated that the optimal polymer (Superfloc C2260) dose for the anaerobic digested sludge was 120 mg/l while the optimal dose for the mixed sludge (mix ratio 2:1) was 15 mg/l, highlighting a huge saving in polymer addition. Therefore, from the technical perspective, the co-conditioning and dewatering strategy can be viewed as a “win-win” situation. However, for its full-scale application, integrated cost-effective analysis of process capabilities, sludge transport, increased cake disposal, additional administration, polymer saving etc. should be factored in.
      1940Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    From "fills" to filter : insights into the reuse of dewatered alum sludge as a filter media in a constructed wetland
    (DesTech Publications, 2007-07) ; ; ;
    Dewatered alum sludge, a by-product of drinking water treatment plants, hitherto consigned to landfills was used to develop a novel bio-filter in form of a constructed wetland. Performance results have demonstrated the benefits of the alum sludge cakes in a lab-scale system in enhancing phosphorus (P) removal from an animal farm wastewater. Although P and organic matter were concurrently removed in the system, there was a probable “one off” release of organics from the system, and this coincided with an increase in inlet P concentration from 39.2 mg-P/l to 163.0 mg-P/l. A conceptual model was then proposed to explain and discuss this.
  • Publication
    Multivariate-parameter optimization of acid blue-7 wastewater treatment by Ti/TiO2 photoelectrocatalysis via Box-Behnken design
    The aim of this study is to obtain optimal decolourization conditions for Acid blue-7 (AB7) wastewater treatment by Ti/TiO2 photoelectrocatalysis using response surface methodology (RSM). On the basis of a three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), RSM was used to determine the effect of pH values (ranged from 3.2 to 6), light intensity (ranged from 10 to 20 ×102μW/cm2) and bias potential (ranged from 0.1 to 1.1V) on the levels of response, i.e. decolourization efficiency. By applying the quadratic regression analysis, the equations describing the behaviors of the response as simultaneous functions of the selected independent variables were developed. Accordingly, the optimal conditions were determined as pH of 3.41, light intensity of 16.02×102μW/cm2 and bias potential of 0.68V. Decolourization efficiency of 90.13%, obtained experimentally under such optimal conditions was highly agreed with that of 90.44%, estimated by the equations.
      1855Scopus© Citations 43
  • Publication
    Equilibrium and kinetic analysis of phosphorus adsorption from aqueous solution using waste alum sludge
    (Elsevier, 2010-12-15) ;
    Excess phosphorus (P) in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A cost-effective method such as use of novel low-cost adsorbents for its adsorptive removal would significantly reduce such impacts. Using batch experiments, the intrinsic dynamics of P adsorption by waste alum sludge (an inevitable by-product of drinking water treatment plants) was examined. Different models of adsorption were used to describe equilibrium and kinetic data, calculate rate constants and determine the adsorption capacity. Results indicate that the intraparticle rate constant increased from 0.0075 mg g-1 min-1 at 5 mg L-1 to 0.1795 mg g-1 min-1 at 60 mg L-1 indicating that more phosphate is adsorbed per gram.min at higher P concentration. Further analyses indicate involvement of film and particle diffusion mechanisms as rate controlling steps at lower and higher concentrations respectively. Mass transfer coefficient obtained ranged from 1.7 × 10-6 to 1.8 × 10-8 indicating a rapid transportation of phosphate molecules onto the alum sludge. These results further demonstrates that alum sludge – hitherto thought of as undesirable waste, can be used as novel adsorbent for P removal from wastewater through various applications, thus offsetting a portion of the disposal costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.
      1497Scopus© Citations 120
  • Publication
    On the fit of statistical and k-C* models to projecting treatment performance in a constructed wetland system
    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of statistical and the k-C* models to projecting treatment performance of constructed wetlands by applying the models to predict the final effluent concentrations of a pilot field-scale constructed wetlands system (CWs) treating animal farm wastewater. The CWs achieved removal rates (in g/m2.d) ranging from 7.1-149.8 for BOD5, 49.8-253.8 for COD and 7.1-47.0 for NH4-N. Generally, it was found that the statistical models developed from multiple regression analyses (MRA) were stronger in predicting final effluent concentrations than the k-C* model. However, both models were inadequate in predicting the final effluent concentrations of NO3-N. The first-order area-based removal rate constants (k, m/yr) determined from the experimental data were 200.5 for BOD5, 80.1 for TP and 173.8 for NH4-N and these indicate a high rate of pollutant removal within the CWs.
      629Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Effects of livestock wastewater variety and disinfectants on the performance of constructed wetlands in organic matters and nitrogen removal
    Background, aim and scope: Treatment performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) is largely dependent on the characteristics of the wastewater. Although livestock wastewater is readily biodegradable in general, its variety in biodegradability can still be significant in practice. In addition, it is a common practice to periodically use disinfectants in livestock activities for health concerns. Obviously, the residual of the disinfectants in livestock wastewater may have serious inhibitory effect on the microbial activities during wastewater treatment. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the variety of livestock wastewater in biodegradability and its effect on the performance of a pilot scale tidal flow CWs (TFCWs) in organic matter and nitrogen removal. Furthermore, investigation of the potential inhibition of the chosen disinfectants on organic matter biodegradation and nitrification was another aim of this study. Materials and methods: The TFCWs system consisted of four-stage downflow reed beds with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.29 m3/m2·per day. Long-term stored livestock wastewater and fresh livestock wastewater were used, respectively, as feed to the system in different periods. Meanwhile, batch aeration tests were carried out to investigate the difference in biodegradation of the two types of wastewaters. Inhibitions of two types of disinfectants, namely UNIPRED and HYPROCLOR ED, on microbial activities were investigated in laboratory batch tests, with dosage of from 0.05% to 0.5%. Results: With fresh livestock wastewater, removal efficiencies of up to 93% and 94% could be achieved with average of 73% and 64% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TN, respectively. The performance deteriorated when the system was fed with long-term stored wastewater. In the batch tests, the long-time stored wastewater was characterized as non-biodegradable or at least very slowly biodegradable, while the fresh wastewater was readily biodegradable. UNIPRED showed very strong inhibition on both heterotrophic organisms and nitrifiers. Tested inhibition started from content of 0.05%, which is 1/10 of the recommended usage rate. Inhibitory effect of HYPROCLOR ED on COD degradation started from 0.1% and complete inhibition occurred from content of 0.3%, while significant inhibition on nitrification started from 0.1%. Conclusions: Livestock wastewater could vary significantly in biodegradability and it may turn to be non-biodegradable after a long-term storage. The variety of the livestock wastewater has a decisive influence on the performance of the CWs system, especially in TN elimination. In addition, the application of disinfectants UNIPRED and HYPROCLOR ED may cause serious inhibition on microbial activities and subsequent system failure.
      499Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate
    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e. alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate.
      1896Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Characterization of aluminium-based water treatment residual for potential phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands
    Aluminium-based water treatment residual (Al-WTR) is the most widely generated residual from water treatment facilities worldwide. It is regarded as a by-product of no reuse potential and landfilled. This study assessed Al-WTR as a potential phosphate-removing substrate in engineered wetlands for wastewater treatment. Results indicate the specific surface area ranged from 28.0 m2 g-1 to 41.4 m2 g-1 and this increased with increasing particle size. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy all indicate that the Al-WTR is mainly composed of amorphous aluminium which influences its phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity. The pH and electrical conductivity ranged from 5.9 - 6.0 and 0.104 dS m-1 - 0.140 dS m-1 respectively, and both showed that it should suitably support plant growth. Batch tests showed a maximum P adsorption capacity of 31.9 mg-P g-1 and significant P removal was achieved in column tests. Overall, results showed that Al-WTR can be a low-cost, easily and locally available substrate for enhanced P removal in engineered wetlands and it carries the benefits of reuse of a by-product that promotes sustainability.
      10161Scopus© Citations 192
  • Publication
    Development of alum sludge-based constructed wetland : an innovative and cost-effective system for wastewater treatment
    (Taylor & Francis, 2009-05) ; ; ;
    This paper describes (in a summarised manner) a research attempt to integrate the dewatered alum sludge, a residual by-product of drinking water treatment process, into a constructed wetland (CW) system for the purpose of enhancing the wastewater treatment performance, thus developing a so called alum sludge-based constructed wetland system. A multi-dimensional research project including the batch tests of phosphorus (P) adsorption onto alum sludge followed by the model CWs trials of single and multi-stage CWs, has been conducted since 2004. It has been successfully demonstrated that the alum sludge-based CW is capable of enhanced and simultaneous removal of P and organic matter (in terms of BOD5 and COD), particularly from medium and high strength wastewater. The sludge cakes act as the carrier for developing biofilm for organics removal and also serve as adsorbent to enhance P immobilization. Batch P-adsorption tests revealed that the alum sludge tested possesses excellent P-adsorption ability of 14.3 mg-P/g.sludge (in dry solids) at pH 7.0 with the adsorption favored at lower pH. The results obtained in a 4-stage treatment wetland system suggest that high removal efficiencies of 90.4% for COD, 88.0% for BOD5, 90.6% for SS, 76.5% for TN and 91.9% for PO43--P under hydraulic loading of 0.36m3/m2·d can be achieved. The field demonstration study of this pioneering development is now underway.
      2168Scopus© Citations 33
  • Publication
    An innovative solution for managing waterworks sludge : developing an alum sludge-based multi-stage constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment
    Waterworks sludge continues to be an inescapable by-product of the potable water treatment process. Accordingly, final disposal of the sludge remains one of the most significant pressing problems for the potable water treatment industry. The possibility of reusing the sludge as a main substrate in a novel constructed wetland system was investigated in this study. Results show that significant phosphorus (P) and other pollutants removal were achieved in the system. With a mean influent BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) levels of 392.7 mg/l and 579.8 mg/l, respectively, a removal efficiency of 90.6 % and 71.8 %, respectively, was obtained. P removal was however exceptionally high despite the high influent mean P level of 45.3 mg-P/l, which is about 2-3 times the level of P commonly found in sewage. This is attributable to the P adsorption capacity of the alum sludge and this highlights the benefits of its reuse in the system. The paper presents and discusses the findings from a laboratory scale research, which has potential for further large scale implementation.