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    Understanding particle deposition kinetics on NF membranes: A focus on micro-beads & membrane interactions at different environmental conditions
    The significance of nanofiltration membrane surface properties when interacting with microbeads with and without permeate flux was investigated. This was achieved by characterising the surface tension and zeta potential of micro-beads and NF90 membranes to determine the colloid–membrane interaction forces. Dynamic adhesion assays under different ionic strengths (0.1 M and 0.01 M) and pH (5, 7, and 9) were conducted. Experimental results showed that at high ionic strength, pH does not have a significant effect on adhesion rates, while at low ionic strength the adhesion rate increased at pH 7 (4.56 s−1 cm−2) compared to pH 5 and pH 9, with rates of 2.69 and 3.66 s−1 cm−2 respectively. A model was devised to predict colloidal adhesion onto membranes under increasing permeate flux conditions, taking into account all interaction forces. Model predictions indicate that drag force overwhelms all other colloid–membrane interaction forces when the permeate flux increases to 7.2 L h−1 m−2. This study suggests that altering membrane surface properties for the prevention of fouling may be limited in its success as an antifouling strategy.
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