Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    The evaluation of viscosity and density of blends of Cyn-diesel pyrolysis fuel with conventional diesel fuel in relation to compliance with fuel specifications EN 590:2009
    The production of synthetic fuels from alternative sources has increased in recent years as a cleaner, more sustainable source of transport fuel is now required. In response to European renewable energy targets, Ireland has committed, through the Biofuels Obligation Scheme of 2008, to producing 4% of transport fuels from biofuels by 2010 and 10% by 2020. In order to be suitable for sale in Europe, diesel fuels and biodiesels must meet certain European fuel specifications outlined in the EN 590:2004 and EN 14214:2009 standards. The aim of this project is to prepare blends of varying proportions of synthetic diesel fuel (Cyn-diesel), produced from the pyrolysis of plastic, versus regular fossil diesel. The viscosity (mm2/s) and density (kg/m3) of these blends as well as of the regular diesel fuel were analysed in relation to compliance with the European fuel standard EN 590.
      1157Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    A review of recent laboratory research and commercial developments in fast pyrolysis and upgrading
    Robust alternative technology choices are required in the paradigm shift from the current crude oil-reliant transport fuel platform to a sustainable, more flexible transport infrastructure. In this vein, fast pyrolysis of biomass and upgrading of the product is deemed to have potential as a technology solution. The objective of this review is to provide an update on recent laboratory research and commercial developments in fast pyrolysis and upgrading techniques. Fast pyrolysis is a relatively mature technology and is on the verge of commercialisation. While upgrading of bio-oils is currently confined to laboratory and pilot scale, an increased understanding of upgrading processes has been achieved in recent times.
      2078Scopus© Citations 354
  • Publication
    Fluidised bed pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasses and comparison of bio-oil and micropyrolyser pyrolysate by GC/M-FID
    The fast pyrolysis of spruce (Picea abies), short rotation willow coppice (Salix alba), Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) was compared on a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor at 460–475 °C. The presence of ash, ranging from 0.26 wt.% for spruce to 3.76 wt.% for wheat straw (moisture free basis) favoured decomposition of cell-wall constituents to char (spruce [11.4 wt.%] < Salix [16.2 wt.%] < Miscanthus [21.8 wt.%] < wheat straw [21.5 wt.%]) with a reduction of liquid organic product (spruce [53.8 wt.%] > Salix [45.4 wt.%] > Miscanthus [37.3 wt.%] > wheat straw [37.2 wt.%]). Bio-oils from Miscanthus and wheat straw were inhomogeneous. Differences between absolute masses of compounds determined by GC/MS-FID of the bio-oils compared with Py-GC/MS-FID suggested a greater role of secondary reactions at the fluidised bed scale, with reduced concentrations of certain lignin-derived, furan and pyran compounds.
      273Scopus© Citations 29
  • Publication
    Waste Polyolefins to Liquid Fuels via Pyrolysis: Review of Commercial State-of-the-Art and Recent Laboratory Research
    With generation of waste plastics increasing, current EU legislation dictates high recovery rates and policy favours waste management technology choices that occupy a high position on the waste management hierarchy. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical conversion technology that can be considered a 'feedstock recycling' process and may play an increasing role in integrated waste management systems of the future. The objective of this article is to present a review of current state-of-the-art commercial pyrolysis processes for the production of liquid transport fuels from waste polyolefins (polyethylenes and polypropylenes). Current plastic waste generation and management practices are briefly summarised. Waste management infrastructure in Europe is reliant on landfill, incineration and mechanical recycling, while feedstock recycling plays an insignificant role. Plastic-to-liquid platforms including delocalised pyrolysis followed by centralised upgrading, stand alone facilities, and integrated waste management infrastructure concepts are briefly discussed. Commercial operations and their process configurations are compared. Reactor technology for cracking of plastic waste is presented. Important issues like fuel quality and contamination are also discussed. Fuel finishing operations and fuel additives required to achieve an engine ready fuel are described in the final section. Recently published laboratory research in thermal and catalytic pyrolysis and integrated and co-processing studies are also summarised in this review.
      3921Scopus© Citations 149
  • Publication
    Characterisation of spruce, salix, miscanthus and wheat straw for pyrolysis applications
    This research details the characterisation of four Irish-grown lignocellulosic biomasses for pyrolysis by biomass composition analysis, TGA, and Py-GC/MS-FID. Ash content (mf) increased in the order spruce (0.26 wt.%) < salix (1.16 wt.%) < miscanthus (3.43 wt.%) < wheat straw (3.76 wt.%). Analysis of hydrolysis-derived sugar monomers showed that xylose concentrations (4.69–26.76 wt.%) ranged significantly compared to glucose concentrations (40.98–49.82 wt.%). Higher hemicellulose and ash contents probably increased non-volatile matter, and decreased the temperature of maximum degradation by TGA as well as yields of GC-detectable compounds by Py-GC/MS-FID. Differences in composition and degradation were reflected in the pyrolysate composition by lower quantities of sugars (principally levoglucosan), pyrans, and furans for salix, miscanthus, and wheat straw compared to spruce, and increased concentrations of cyclopentenones and acids.
      543Scopus© Citations 47