Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Loss of Prolyl Hydroxylase-1 Protects Against Colitis Through Reduced Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Increased Barrier Function
    Background & Aims: Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are protective in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we investigated the therapeutic target(s) and mechanism(s) involved. Methods: The effect of genetic deletion of individual HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes on the development of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)–induced colitis was examined in mice. Results: PHD1−/−, but not PHD2+/− or PHD3−/−, mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than wild-type controls as determined by weight loss, disease activity, colon histology, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokine expression. Reduced susceptibility of PHD1−/− mice to colitis was associated with increased density of colonic epithelial cells relative to wild-type controls, which was because of decreased levels of apoptosis that resulted in enhanced epithelial barrier function. Furthermore, with the use of cultured epithelial cells it was confirmed that hydroxylase inhibition reversed DSS-induced apo tosis and barrier dysfunction. Finally, PHD1 levels were increased with disease severity in intestinal tissue from patients with IBD and in colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice. Conclusions: These results imply a role for PHD1 as a positive regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis in the inflamed colon. Genetic loss of PHD1 is protective against colitis through decreased epithelial cell apoptosis and consequent enhancement of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Thus, targeted PHD1 inhibition may represent a new therapeutic approach in IBD.
      490Scopus© Citations 152
  • Publication
    Hypercapnia Induces Cleavage and Nuclear Localization of RelB Protein, Giving Insight into CO2 Sensing and Signaling
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2012-03-06) ; ; ;
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasingly being appreciated as an intracellular signaling molecule that affects inflammatory and immune responses. Elevated arterial CO2 (hypercapnia) is encountered in a range of clinical conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and as a consequence of therapeutic ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. In patients suffering from this syndrome, therapeutic hypoventilation strategy designed to reduce mechanical damage to the lungs is accompanied by systemic hypercapnia and associated acidosis, which are associated with improved patient outcome. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of hypercapnia and the relative contribution of elevated CO2 or associated acidosis to this response remain poorly understood. Recently, a role for the non-canonical NF-κB pathway has been postulated to be important in signaling the cellular transcriptional response to CO2. In this study, we demonstrate that in cells exposed to elevated CO2, the NF-κB family member RelB was cleaved to a lower molecular weight form and translocated to the nucleus in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Furthermore, elevated nuclear RelB was observed in vivo and correlated with hypercapnia-induced protection against LPS-induced lung injury. Hypercapnia-induced RelB processing was sensitive to proteasomal inhibition by MG-132 but was independent of the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β or MALT-1, both of which have been previously shown to mediate RelB processing. Taken together, these data demonstrate that RelB is a CO2-sensitive NF-κB family member that may contribute to the beneficial effects of hypercapnia in inflammatory diseases of the lung.
      270Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    NF-B Links CO2 Sensing to Innate Immunity and Inflammation in Mammalian Cells
    (The American Association of Immunologists, 2010-09-03) ; ; ;
    Molecular O2 and CO2 are the primary substrate and product of aerobic metabolism, respectively. Levels of these physiologic gases in the cell microenvironment vary dramatically both in health and in diseases, such as chronic inflammation, ischemia, and cancer, in which metabolism is significantly altered. The identification of the hypoxia-inducible factor led to the discovery of an ancient and direct link between tissue O2 and gene transcription. In this study, we demonstrate that mammalian cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts and others) also sense changes in local CO2 levels, leading to altered gene expression via the NF-κB pathway. IKKα, a central regulatory component of NF-κB, rapidly and reversibly translocates to the nucleus in response to elevated CO2. This response is independent of hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylases, extracellular and intracellular pH, and pathways that mediate acute CO2-sensing in nematodes and flies and leads to attenuation of bacterial LPS-induced gene expression. These results suggest the existence of a molecular CO2 sensor in mammalian cells that is linked to the regulation of genes involved in innate immunity and inflammation.
      364Scopus© Citations 80
  • Publication
    Hypercapnia Induces Cleavage and Nuclear Localization of RelB Protein, Giving Insight into CO2 Sensing and Signaling
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2012-03-06) ; ; ;
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasingly being appreciated as an intracellular signaling molecule that affects inflammatory and immune responses. Elevated arterial CO2 (hypercapnia) is encountered in a range of clinical conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and as a consequence of therapeutic ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. In patients suffering from this syndrome, therapeutic hypoventilation strategy designed to reduce mechanical damage to the lungs is accompanied by systemic hypercapnia and associated acidosis, which are associated with improved patient outcome. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of hypercapnia and the relative contribution of elevated CO2 or associated acidosis to this response remain poorly understood. Recently, a role for the non-canonical NF-κB pathway has been postulated to be important in signaling the cellular transcriptional response to CO2. In this study, we demonstrate that in cells exposed to elevated CO2, the NF-κB family member RelB was cleaved to a lower molecular weight form and translocated to the nucleus in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Furthermore, elevated nuclear RelB was observed in vivo and correlated with hypercapnia-induced protection against LPS-induced lung injury. Hypercapnia-induced RelB processing was sensitive to proteasomal inhibition by MG-132 but was independent of the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β or MALT-1, both of which have been previously shown to mediate RelB processing. Taken together, these data demonstrate that RelB is a CO2-sensitive NF-κB family member that may contribute to the beneficial effects of hypercapnia in inflammatory diseases of the lung.
      263Scopus© Citations 34