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    Genetics of vesicoureteral reflux
    Primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common urological anomaly in children, affecting 1–2% of the pediatric population and 30–40% of children presenting with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Refluxassociated nephropathy is a major cause of childhood hypertension and chronic renal failure. The hereditary and familial nature of VUR is well recognized and several studies have reported that siblings of children with VUR have a higher incidence of reflux than the general pediatric population. Familial clustering of VUR implies that genetic factors have an important role in its pathogenesis, but no single major locus or gene for VUR has yet been identified and most researchers now acknowledge that VUR is genetically heterogeneous. Improvements in genome-scan techniques and continuously increasing knowledge of the genetic basis of VUR should help us to further understand its pathogenesis.
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