Now showing 1 - 10 of 35
  • Publication
    Regioselective Electrophilic C-H Bond Activation in Triazolylidene Metal Complexes Containing a N-Bound Phenyl Substituent
    Transmetalation of a 1,4-diphenyl-substituted 1,2,3-triazolylidene silver complex with an electrophilic metal center, e.g., RuII, IrIII, or RhIII, induces spontaneous and chemoselective cyclometalation involving C–H bond activation of the N-bound phenyl group exclusively. Less electrophilic metals such as IrI, RhI, and PtII yield a monodentate triazolylidene complex, while cyclometalation with borderline cases (PdII) or the activation of the C-bound phenyl ring requires acetate as a promoter.
      297Scopus© Citations 60
  • Publication
    Synthesis of pincer-type N-heterocyclic carbene palladium complexes with a hemilabile ligand and their application in cross-coupling catalysis
    Benzimidazolium salts containing both a neutral imine and a masked carboxylate functional group for potential metal chelation were prepared. Palladation of the ester-protected ligand afforded a N,C-bidentate carbene complex 4. Subsequent ester hydrolysis preserved the bidentate coordination mode and yielded complex 5 with a pending COOH group exclusively. However, when ester deprotection was carried out prior to metalation, the N,C,O-tridentate pincer-type coordinated palladium complex 7 was obtained. Proton-abstraction of the dangling COOH group in the bidentate ligand of complex 5 by treatment with a base led to the formation of the N,C,O-tridentate coordinated Pd system 7, and inversely, exposure of the tridentate bound Pd complex 7 with acid afforded the N,C-bidentate ligand coordination mode in complex 5, demonstrating hemilability of the oxygen donor site in the pincer ligand. All three palladium(II) complexes 4, 5, and 7 were evaluated in cross-coupling catalysis and revealed distinct activity differences that are dependent on the type of coupling (Suzuki vs. Heck) and the substrate (Ar-Br vs. Ar-Cl). These differences suggest that judicious choice of donor groups in pincer-type complexes is a viable strategy for catalyst optimization.
      306Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Carbene Iridium Complexes for Efficient Water Oxidation: Scope and Mechanistic Insights
    Iridium complexes of Cp* and mesoionic carbene ligands were synthesized and evaluated as potential water oxidation catalysts using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant. Performance was evaluated by turnover frequency at 50% conversion and by absolute turnover number, and the most promising precatalysts were studied further. Molecular turnover frequencies varied from 190 to 451 per hour with a maximum turnover number of 38 000. While the rate of oxygen evolution depends linearly on iridium concentration, concurrent spectroscopic and manometric observations following stoichiometric oxidant additions suggest oxygen evolution is limited by two sequential first-order reactions. Under the applied conditions, the oxygen evolving species appears to be a well-defined and molecular species based on kinetic analyses, effects of careful ligand design, reproducibility, and the absence of persistent dynamic light scattering signals. Outside of these conditions, the complex mechanism is highly dependent on reaction conditions. While confident characterization of the catalytically active species is difficult, especially under high-turnover conditions, this work strongly suggests the primary active species under these conditions is a molecular species.
      344Scopus© Citations 93
  • Publication
    Dinuclear ruthenium complexes containing a new ditopic phthalazin- bis(triazole) ligand that promotes metal-metal interactions
    Much attention has been paid to heterocyclic N-containing ligands due to their applicability as bridging ligands in the synthesis of redox active dinuclear metal complexes. With this aim, we report the synthesis and full characterization of a novel phthalazine-triazole ligand (1,4-bis(1-methyl-1H-1, 2,3-triazol-4-yl)phthalazine). Moreover, we show that the phthalazine nitrogen atoms of this N-heterocyclic ligand are more reactive towards alkylating agents than the triazole groups. New ruthenium (ii) complexes containing this ligand have been obtained and characterized both structurally and electrochemically. The geometry imposed by the ligand allows the placement of two ruthenium centers in very close proximity so that efficient through-space interactions take place, a concept of crucial importance for electron transfer processes.
      353Scopus© Citations 21
  • Publication
    Carbene transfer from triazolylidene gold complexes as a potent strategy for inducing high catalytic activity
    A series of gold(I) complexes [AuCl(trz)] were synthesized that contain 1,2,3-triazolylidene (trz) ligands with variable wingtip groups. In the presence of AgBF4, these complexes undergo ligand redistribution to yield cationic complexes [Au(trz)2]BF4 in high yields as a result of efficient carbene transfer. Identical reactivity patterns were detected for carbene gold complexes comprised of Arduengo-type IMes ligands (IMes=N,N⠲-dimesityl-imidazol-2-ylidene). Reaction of cationic complexes [Au(trz)2]+ with [AuCl(trz⠲)] afforded the heteroleptic complex [Au(trz)(trz⠲)]+ and [AuCl(trz)] (trz, trz⠲=triazolylidene ligands with different wingtip groups). Carbene transfer occurs spontaneously, yet is markeldy rate-enhanced in the presence of Ag+. The facile carbene transfer was exploited as a catalyst activation process to form active gold species for the aldol condensation of isocyanides and aldehydes to form oxazolines. The catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the presence of Ag+ ions to initiate catalyst activation. High turnovers (105) and turnover frequencies (10 4 h-1) were accomplished. Structural analysis at early stages of the reaction support the critical role of triazolylidene dissociation to activate the precatalyst and dynamic light scattering revealed the presence of nanoparticles (±100 nm diameter) as potential catalytically active species. Furthermore, the triazolylidene scaffold had no impact on the diastereoselectivity of the oxazoline formation, and chiral triazolylidenes did not induce any asymmetry in the product. The facile dissociation of carbenes from [AuCl(carbene)] in the presence of Ag+ ions suggests a less stable Au-Ccarbene interaction than often assumed, with potential implications for gold-catalyzed reactions that employ a silver salt as (putative) halide scavenger.
      389Scopus© Citations 110
  • Publication
    Stereospecific synthesis and catalytic activity of L-histidylidene metal complexes
    We report on the synthesis, metal coordination, and catalytic impact of histidylidene, a histidine-derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The histidinium salt 3, comprising methyl substituents at both heterocyclic nitrogens and protected at the C- and N-terminus of the amino acid, was rhodated and iridated by a transmetallation protocol using Ag2O. Ambient temperature and short reaction times were pivotal for full retention of configuration at the a-carbon. The stereospecificity of the reaction was conveniently probed by P-31 NMR spectroscopy after transmetallation with rhodium(I) and coordination of enantiopure (S)-Ph-binepine. The histidylidene rhodium complexes are highly efficient catalysts for the mild hydrosilylation of ketones. For the cationic complexes [Rh(cod)(histidylidene)(phosphine)](+), lowering the temperature shifted the rate-limiting step of the catalytic reaction to an earlier stage that is not enantioselective. Hence the asymmetric induction-which is governed by the chiral phosphine-did not improve at low temperature.
      393Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Palladium carbene complexes for selective alkene di- and oligomerization
    A series of palladium complexes were synthesized that comprise three sterically different C,N-bidentate coordinating NHC-pyridine ligands (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). In one set, the pyridine and the carbene are linked by a flexible CH2 group (a), in the other two sets, the two ligand units are directly linked and feature a shielding mesityl substituent on the carbene and either an unsubstituted pyridine (b) or a xylyl-substituted pyridine unit (c). Investigation of the reactivity of cationic complexes [Pd(C^N)Me(NCMe)]+, 6, analogues to Brookhart’s α-diimine system, towards alkenes showed a strong correlation between the catalytic activity and selectivity and the ligand setting. While 6a was inactive in ethylene conversion, 6b afforded low-molecular weight olefins (oligomerization), and 6c produced exclusively butene (dimerization). With styrene as substrate, exclusive dimerization occurred with all three complexes. Steric and electronic factors were identified that govern the disparate activity and selectivity, and that allow for efficient tailoring of the catalytic performance.
      471Scopus© Citations 53
  • Publication
    Solvent-dependent switch of ligand donor ability and catalytic activity of ruthenium(II) complexes containing pyridinylidene amide (PYA) n-heterocyclic carbene hybrid ligands
    Chelating ligands incorporating both N-[1-alkylpyridin-4(1H)-ylidene]amide (PYA) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donor sites were prepared and used for the synthesis of ruthenium(II) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV–vis spectroscopy of the complexes indicate a solvent-dependent contribution of the limiting resonance structures associated with the ligand in solution. The neutral pyridylidene imine structure is more pronounced in apolar solvents (CH2Cl2), while the mesoionic pyridinium amide form is predominant in polar solvents (MeOH, DMSO). The distinct electronic properties of these hybrid PYA-NHC ligands in different solvents have a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the ruthenium center, e.g., in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The activity in different solvents qualitatively correlates with the solvent permittivity.
      517Scopus© Citations 38
  • Publication
    Synthesis of a sterically modulated pyridine-NHC palladium complex and its reactivity towards ethylene
    A new cationic pyridine-carbene palladium complex has been prepared that features a C,N-bidentate coordinating ligand with a shielded pyridine and a sterically less protected carbene moiety; evaluation of this complex in ethylene polymerization revealed competitive reductive elimination processes and provides guidelines for further catalyst design.
      261Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    [Ru(bpy)3]2+ analogues containing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand
    A synthetic procedure is described that provides access to [Ru(bpy)3]2+ analogues in which one bpy ligand is replaced by a C,N-bidentate coordinating carbene-benzimidazole ligand (bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine). These new complexes were prepared by first installing the chelating carbene ligand onto a Ru(cymene) platform and subsequent ligand substitution using bpy or terpy (terpy = 2:2’,6’:2’’-terpyridine). The carbene ligand significantly affects the optical properties of the complex and lowers the ruthenium(II) oxidation potential substantially. Such modifications may be advantageous for the development of new classes of photosensitizer materials.
      864Scopus© Citations 48