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- PublicationTowards an operationalisation of nature-based solutions for natural hazardsNature-based solutions (NBS) are being promoted as adaptive measures against predicted increasing hydrome-teorological hazards (HMHs), such as heatwaves andfloods which have already caused significant loss of life andeconomic damage across the globe. However, the underpinning factors such as policy framework, end-users' in-terests and participation for NBS design and operationalisation are yet to be established. We discuss theoperationalisation and implementation processes of NBS by means of a novel concept of Open-Air Laboratories(OAL) for its wider acceptance. The design and implementation of environmentally, economically, technicallyand socio-culturally sustainable NBS require inter- and transdisciplinary approaches which could be achievedby fostering co-creation processes by engaging stakeholders across various sectors and levels, inspiring more ef-fective use of skills, diverse knowledge, manpower and resources, and connecting and harmonising the adapta-tion aims. The OAL serves as a benchmark for NBS upscaling, replication and exploitation in policy-makingprocess through monitoring byfield measurement, evaluation by key performance indicators and buildingsolid evidence on their short- and long-term multiple benefits in different climatic, environmental and socio-economic conditions, thereby alleviating the challenges of political resistance,financial barriers and lack ofknowledge. We conclude that holistic management of HMHs by effective use of NBS can be achieved with stan-dard compliant data for replicating and monitoring NBS in OALs, knowledge about policy silos and interaction be-tween research communities and end-users. Further research is needed for multi-risk analysis of HMHs andinclusion of NBS into policy frameworks, adaptable at local, regional and national scales leading to modificationin the prevalent guidelines related to HMHs. Thefindings of this work can be used for developing synergies be-tween current policy frameworks, scientific research and practical implementation of NBS in Europe and beyondfor its wider acceptance.
Scopus© Citations 88 222
- PublicationPassive Control Systems for Improving Air Quality in Urban Street Canyons: The Origins, Current State of Art and Next StepsStrategies to improve urban air quality have primarily focused on reducing emissions through campaigning for green alternative modes of transport and improving the efficiency.
- PublicationAir Pollution Abatement Performances of Green Infrastructure in Open Road and Built-up Street Canyon Environments - A ReviewIntensifying the proportion of urban green infrastructure has been considered as one of the remedies for air pollution levels in cities, yet the impact of numerous vegetation types deployed in different built environments has to be fully synthesised and quantified. This review examined published literature on neighbourhood air quality modifications by green interventions. Studies were evaluated that discussed personal exposure to local sources of air pollution under the presence of vegetation in open road and built-up street canyon environments. Further, we critically evaluated the available literature to provide a better understanding of the interactions between vegetation and surrounding built-up environments and ascertain means of reducing local air pollution exposure using green infrastructure. The net effects of vegetation in each built-up environment are also summarised and possible recommendations for the future design of green infrastructure are proposed. In a street canyon environment, high-level vegetation canopies (trees) led to a deterioration in air quality, while low-level green infrastructure (hedges) improved air quality conditions. For open road conditions, wide, low porosity and tall vegetation leads to downwind pollutant reductions while gaps and high porosity vegetation could lead to no improvement or even deteriorated air quality. The review considers that generic recommendations can be provided for vegetation barriers in open road conditions. Green walls and roofs on building envelopes can also be used as effective air pollution abatement measures. The critical evaluation of the fundamental concepts and the amalgamation of key technical features of past studies by this review could assist urban planners to design and implement green infrastructures in the built environment.
Scopus© Citations 588 437