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- PublicationWind power grid integration: The European experienceEurope currently holds the largest installed capacity of wind power plants of all continents. Over decades of development, significant adaptations have been implemented to integrate wind turbines into the electrical power system. Wind power research has been accelerated by the need to maintain grid performance and reliability in the face of the exponential deployment of wind turbines. This paper explains the basic requirements and principles in grid codes, modeling, reserves, forecasting, system planning, and operation, and relates how experience especially in Europe has led to new practices and new research.
- PublicationCapacity value of wind powerPower systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for generation system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to generation system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America, along with some new analysis are highlighted with a discussion of relevant issues also given.
1938Scopus© Citations 268
- PublicationExperience and Challenges With Short-Term Balancing in European Systems With Large Share of Wind PowerThe amount of wind power in the world is quickly increasing. The background for this development is improved technology, decreased costs for the units, and increased concern regarding environmental problems of competing technologies such as fossil fuels. Some areas are starting to experience very high penetration levels of wind and there have been many instances when wind power has exceeded 50% of the electrical energy production in some balancing areas. The aims of this paper are to show the increased need for balancing, caused by wind power in the minutes to hourly time scale, and to show how this balancing has been performed in some systems when the wind share was higher than 50%. Experience has shown that this is possible, but that there are some challenges that have to be solved as the amount of wind power increases.
825Scopus© Citations 42