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- PublicationExpression of genes for bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-6 in various parts of the human skeletonBACKGROUND: Differences in duration of bone healing in various parts of the human skeleton are common experience for orthopaedic surgeons. The reason for these differences is not obvious and not clear.METHODS: In this paper we decided to measure by the use of real-time RT-PCR technique the level of expression of genes for some isoforms of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), whose role is proven in bone formation, bone induction and bone turnover. Seven bone samples recovered from various parts of skeletons from six cadavers of young healthy men who died in traffic accidents were collected. Activity of genes for BMP-2, -4 and -6 was measured by the use of fluorescent SYBR Green I.RESULTS: It was found that expression of m-RNA for BMP-2 and BMP-4 is higher in trabecular bone in epiphyses of long bones, cranial flat bones and corpus mandibulae then in the compact bone of diaphyses of long bones. In all samples examined the expression of m-RNA for BMP-4 was higher than for BMP-2.CONCLUSION: It was shown that m-RNA for BMP-6 is not expressed in the collected samples at all. It is postulated that differences in the level of activation of genes for BMPs is one of the important factors which determine the differences in duration of bone healing of various parts of the human skeleton.
Scopus© Citations 32 295
- PublicationDementia in SPG4 hereditary spastic paraplegia : Clinical, genetic, and neuropathologic evidenceBackground: Cognitive impairment and dementia has been reported in autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) linked to the SPG4 locus. There has only been one postmortem examination described; not all accept that progressive cognitive decline is a feature of this disorder.Objective: A family with SPG4-HSP known to have a deletion of exon 17 in the spastin gene (SPG4delEx17) was cognitively assessed over a 7-year period. The index family member died and a postmortem examination was performed.Methods: Thirteen family members older than 40 years were clinically and cognitively assessed using the Cambridge Cognitive Assessment over a 7-year period. The presence of SPG4delEx17 was assessed; a neuropathologic examination of the brain of the index family member was performed.Results: Cognitive decline occurred in 6 of the 13 family members and in all 4 older than 60 years. Two genetic deletions were identified: SPG4delEx17 in 12 of the 13 family members and a deletion of SPG6 (SPG6del) in 5. Eight individuals had the SPG4delEx17 deletion only; 4 had evidence of progressive cognitive impairment. Four family members had both SPG4delEx17 and SPG6del; 2 of these had cognitive impairment. One family member with the SPG6del alone had neither HSP nor cognitive impairment. The index case with both deletions died with dementia; the brain showed widespread ubiquitin positivity within the neocortex and white matter.Conclusion: Cognitive decline and dementia is a feature of SPG4-HSP due to a deletion of exon 17 of the spastin gene. Neurology (R) 2009; 73: 378-384
Scopus© Citations 44 740