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    Identifying damage in a bridge by analysing rotation response to a moving load
    This article proposes a bridge damage detection method using direct rotation measurements. Initially, numerical analyses are carried out on a one-dimensional (1D) simply supported beam model loaded with a single moving point load to investigate the sensitivity of rotation as a main parameter for damage identification. As a result of this study, the difference in rotation measurements due to a single moving point load obtained for healthy and damaged states is proposed as a damage indicator. A relatively simple laboratory experiment is conducted on a 3-m long simply supported beam structure to validate the results obtained from the numerical analysis. The case of multi-axle vehicles is investigated through numerical analyses of a 1D bridge model and a theoretical basis for damage detection is presented. Finally, a sophisticated 3D dynamic finite element model of a 20-m long simply supported bridge structure is developed by an independent team of researchers and used to test the robustness of the proposed damage detection methodology in a series of blind tests. Rotations from an extensive range of damage scenarios were provided to the main team who applied their methods without prior knowledge of the extent or location of the damage. Results from the blind test simulations demonstrate that the proposed methodology provides a reasonable indication of the bridge condition for all test scenarios.
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