Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
  • Publication
    Nursing Fellowship in Addiction Medicine: A Novel Program in a Canadian Setting
    Substance use disorders disproportionally contribute to the global burden of disease; however, their treatment has been hindered in large part due to a long-standing "bench to practice" gap in which competencies for assessing, treating and preventing substance use disorders are often lacking from healthcare education curricula. Immediate and effective translation of recent advances in addiction research into routine clinical practice requires specialized training programmes for health professionals involved in the care of patients and families affected by substance use disorders.
      264Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    The Impact of Enrolment in Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Initiation of Heavy Drinking among People who Use Heroin
    Background: There is equivocal evidence regarding whether people who use heroin substitute heroin for alcohol upon entry to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). We aimed to examine the impact of MMT enrolment on the onset of heavy drinking among people who use heroin. Methods: We derived data from prospective, community-based cohorts of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada, between December 1, 2005, and May 31, 2014. Multivariable extended Cox regression analysis examined the effect of MMT enrolment on the onset of heavy drinking among people who used heroin at baseline. Results: In total, 357 people who use heroin were included in this study. Of these, 208 (58%) enrolled in MMT at some point during follow-up, and 115 (32%) reported initiating heavy drinking during follow-up for an incidence density of 7.8 events (95% CI 6.4-9.5) per 100 person-years. The incidence density of heavy drinking was significantly lower among those enrolled in MMT at some point during follow-up compared to those who did not (4.6 vs. 16.2; p < 0.001). MMT enrolment was not significantly associated with time to initiate heavy drinking (adjusted relative hazard (ARH) 1.27; 95% CI 0.78-2.07) after adjustment for relevant demographic and substance-use characteristics. Age and cannabis use were the only variables that were independently associated with the time to onset of heavy drinking (ARH 0.74; 95% CI 0.58-0.94 and ARH 2.06; 95% CI 1.32-3.19, respectively). Conclusion: In this study, MMT enrolment did not predict heavy drinking and may even appear to decrease the initiation of heavy drinking. Our findings suggest younger age and cannabis use may predict heavy drinking. These findings could help inform on-going discussions about the effects of opioid agonist therapy on alcohol consumption among people who use heroin.
      234Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    Diagnosing opioid addiction in people with chronic pain
    Over the past two decades, a steep rise in the number of opioids dispensed for pain treatment has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in overdose deaths in the United States. In 2016, up to 32 000 deaths reportedly involved prescription opioids, and the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose has been estimated to exceed $78bn (£59bn; €67bn) annually. Despite all the evidence of harm, however, it remains unclear exactly how to determine if a patient with chronic pain has opioid addiction, or what criteria should serve as a gold standard in making a diagnosis of opioid use disorder (OUD) in this context. This is an important gap in the literature that hinders both evidence-based care and research on the links between prescription opioids and OUD. In this editorial, we discuss the limitations of diagnosing OUD in people with chronic pain, and make several recommendations for further research.
      537Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Medication-assisted treatment for youth with opioid use disorder: Current dilemmas and remaining questions
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-30) ; ; ;
    The prevalence of risky opioid use, opioid use disorder, and related harms continue to rise among youth (adolescents and young adults age 15-25) in North America. With an increasing number of opioid overdoses, there remain significant barriers to care for youth with opioid use disorder, and there is an urgent need to expand evidence-based care for treatment of opioid use disorder among this population. Based on the extensive literature on treatment of opioid use disorder among adults, medicated-assisted treatment is likely to be an important or even essential component of treatment of opioid use disorder for most youth. In this article, we outline the current dilemmas and questions regarding the use of medication-assisted treatment among youth with opioid use disorder and propose some potential solutions based on the current evidence.
      228Scopus© Citations 28
  • Publication
    Alcohol use in opioid agonist treatment
    (BioMed Central, 2016-12-08) ; ;
    Alcohol misuse among individuals receiving agonist treatment for an opioid use disorder is common and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At present, though substantial research highlights effective strategies for the screening, diagnosis and management of an alcohol or opioid use disorder individually, less is known about how best to care for those with a dual diagnosis especially since common treatments for opioid addiction may be contraindicated in a setting of alcohol use. This review summarizes existing research and characterizes the prevalence, clinical implications and management of alcohol misuse among individuals with opioid addiction. Furthermore, it highlights clinically relevant management strategies in need of future research to advance care for this unique, but important, patient population.
      206Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Prescription opioids, opioid use disorder, and overdose crisis in Canada: Current dilemmas and remaining questions
    (Wolters Klumer, 2018-06-01) ; ;
    In Canada, a rise in opioid use disorder (OUD) and overdose has been linked to opioid prescriptions in a number of contexts. At the same time, relatively few patients prescribed opioids reportedly develop OUD. This combination of findings suggests a pressing need for research on specific avenues through which medically prescribed opioids influence OUD and overdose in Canada. In this commentary, we therefore discuss a few of the potential processes that might allow for medically prescribed opioids to indirectly influence rising overdose rates, and the processes that might account for inconsistencies between large correlational research and studies of OUD incidence in opioid prescribed patients.
      217Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    A Case of Opioid Overdose and Subsequent Death After Medically Supervised Withdrawal: The Problematic Role of Rapid Tapers for Opioid Use Disorder
    BACKGROUND: Relapse to opioid use is common after rapid opioid withdrawal. As a result, short-term tapers of opioid agonist/partial agonist medications, such as methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone, are no longer recommended by recent clinical care guidelines for the management of opioid use disorder. Nonetheless, rapid tapers are still commonplace in medically supervised withdrawal settings.CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of an individual with opioid use disorder who was prescribed a rapid buprenorphine/naloxone taper in a medically supervised withdrawal facility and who had a subsequent opioid overdose and death after discharge. DISCUSSION:The fatal outcome in this case study underscores the potential severe harms associated with use of rapid tapers. Given the increased overdose risk, tapers should be avoided and continuing care strategies, such as maintenance pharmacotherapy, should be initiated in medically supervised withdrawal settings.
      168Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    How Can We Investigate the Role of Topiramate in the Treatment of Cocaine Use Disorder More Thoroughly?
    We read with interest Drs Darke and Farrell’s commentary on our meta-analysis of Topiramate published in the eight issue of 2016. To elaborate on some of the ideas raised by the commentary, we focus our response on the question of why some studies implied a benefit and others did not. Overall, although the current evidence is not strong enough to support the routine clinical use of Topiramate for the treatment of cocaine use disorder, it may be useful for researching in certain circumstances in terms of helping people with cocaine use disorders stay abstinent from cocaine use.
      189Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    A needs assessment of the number of comprehensive addiction care physicians required in a Canadian setting
    Objective: Medical professionals adequately trained to prevent and treat substance use disorders are in short supply in most areas of the world. Whereas physician training in addiction medicine can improve patient and public health outcomes, the coverage estimates have not been established. We estimated the extent of the need for medical professionals skilled in addiction medicine in a Canadian setting. Methods: We used Monte-Carlo simulations to generate medians and 95% credibility intervals for the burden of alcohol and drug use harms, including morbidity and mortality, in British Columbia, by geographic health region. We obtained prevalence estimates for the models from the Medical Services Plan billing, the Discharge Abstract Database data, and the government surveillance data. We calculated a provider availability index (PAI), a ratio of the size of the labor force per 1000 affected individuals, for each geographic health region, using the number of American Board of Addiction Medicine certified physicians in each area. Results: Depending on the data source used for population estimates, the availability of specialized addiction care providers varied across geographic health regions. For drug-related harms, we found the highest PAI of 23.72 certified physicians per 1000 affected individuals, when using the Medical Services Plan and Discharge Abstract Database data. Drawing on the surveillance data, the drug-related PAI dropped to 0.46. The alcohol-related PAI ranged between 0.10 and 86.96 providers, depending on data source used for population estimates. Conclusions: Our conservative estimates highlight the need to invest in healthcare provider training and to develop innovative approaches for more rural health regions.
      231Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Prevalence of Heavy Alcohol Use Among People Receiving Methadone Following Change to Methadose
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-06) ; ; ;
    BACKGROUND: A recent switch in methadone formulation from methadone (1 mg/mL) to Methadose (10 mg/mL) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was associated with increased reports of opioid withdrawal and increases in illicit opioid use. Impacts on other forms of drug use have not been assessed. Since alcohol use is common among people receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT), we assessed if switch was associated with increased prevalence of heavy alcohol use. METHODS: Drawing on data from two open prospective cohort studies of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, BC, generalized estimating equations (GEE) model examined relationship between methadone formulation change and heavy alcohol use, defined by National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). A sub-analysis examined relationship with heavier drinking defined as at least eight drinks per day on average in last six months. RESULTS: Between June 2013 and May 2015, a total of 787 participants on methadone were eligible for the present analysis, of which 123 (15.6%) reported heavy drinking at least once in last six months. In an unadjusted GEE model, Methadose use was not significantly associated with an increased likelihood of heavy drinking [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-1.21]. Methadose use was not significantly associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at least eight drinks daily on average (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.72-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Despite reported changes in opioid use patterns coinciding with the change, there appeared to be no effect of the methadone formulation change on heavy drinking in this setting.
      208Scopus© Citations 3