Now showing 1 - 10 of 27
  • Publication
    Exploring ultrasound-assisted extraction to recover high valuable polysaccharides from brown macroalgae and its related antioxidant activities
    This study aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters of temperature, time and amplitude on the yields of fucose and glucans and their antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) of extracts from Laminaria digitata and to evaluate the application of these optimum UAE parameters in other brown macroalgae (L. hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum).
  • Publication
    The potential of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 enriched diets in laying hens, to improve egg vitamin D content and antioxidant availability
    Sixty Hy-line brown hens were randomly assigned to four barns (n = 4) to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) versus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) enriched diets on egg vitamin D concentration, antioxidant activity and egg quality parameters. Experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square consisting of 4 experimental treatments and 4 experimental periods. The treatments were (1) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ (2) 3000 IU of vitamin D₃ (3) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ and 37.5 μg of 25-OH-D₃ (4) 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ per kg of feed. Hens offered 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ had a higher (P < 0.05) total vitamin D egg yolk content (5.06 μg/egg), and antioxidant activity compared to other dietary treatments. The results demonstrates that the enrichment of hen diets with 25-OH-D₃ may be a useful approach and may contribute between 25 and 33% towards total vitamin D daily requirements while also improving antioxidant status of eggs. Industrial relevance: Vitamin D deficiency is now regarded as a major issue in northern Europe and has been described as a pandemic. A growing interest in vitamin D food fortification in northern Europe to satisfy the current dietary intake recommendations has been observed. The use of a bio-addition approach for increasing vitamin D intake through biofortification of livestock feeds attracts attention. Enrichment of the hen's diet with vitamin D may also supply additional benefits of increasing antioxidant activity. This increase in antioxidant activity may have the ability to increase food quality and extend the shelf life. This study explores the effect of vitamin D enriched diets fed to laying hens on vitamin D egg yolk content and antioxidant activity in the egg. These enriched diets could demonstrate that enrichment of hen diets with 25-hyroxvitamin D₃ may be a useful approach for tackling low vitamin D intakes and improving antioxidant capacity of eggs.
    Scopus© Citations 16  336
  • Publication
    Emerging food processing technologies and factors impacting their industrial adoption
    Innovative food processing technologies have been widely investigated in food processing research in recent years. These technologies offer key advantages for advancing the preservation and quality of conventional foods, for combatting the growing challenges posed by globalization, increased competitive pressures and diverse consumer demands. However, there is a need to increase the level of adoption of novel technologies to ensure the potential benefits of these technologies are exploited more by the food industry. This review outlines emerging thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with regard to their mechanisms, applications and commercial aspects. The level of adoption of novel food processing technologies by the food industry is outlined and the factors that impact their industrial adoption are discussed. At an industry level, the technological capabilities of individual companies, their size, market share as well as their absorptive capacity impact adoption of a novel technology. Characteristics of the technology itself such as costs involved in its development and commercialization, associated risks and relative advantage, and level of complexity and compatibility influence the technology's adoption. The review concludes that a deep understanding of the development and application of a technology along with the factors influencing its acceptance are critical to ensure its commercial adoption.
    Scopus© Citations 126  1218
  • Publication
    Extraction and yield optimisation of fucose, glucans and associated antioxidant activities from laminaria digitata by applying response surface methodology to high intensity ultrasound-assisted extraction
    The objectives of this study were to employ response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate and optimize the effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables, temperature, time and amplitude on the yields of polysaccharides (fucose and total glucans) and antioxidant activities (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH)) from Laminaria digitata, and to explore the suitability of applying the optimum UAE conditions for L. digitata to other brown macroalgae (L. hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum). The RSM with three-factor, four-level Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to study and optimize the extraction variables. A second order polynomial model fitted well to the experimental data with R2 values of 0.79, 0.66, 0.64, 0.73 for fucose, total glucans, FRAP and DPPH, respectively. The UAE parameters studied had a significant influence on the levels of fucose, FRAP and DPPH. The optimised UAE conditions (temperature = 76 ◦C, time = 10 min and amplitude = 100%) achieved yields of fucose (1060.7 ± 70.6 mg/100 g dried seaweed (ds)), total glucans (968.6 ± 13.3 mg/100 g ds), FRAP (8.7 ± 0.5 µM trolox/mg freeze-dried extract (fde)) and DPPH (11.0 ± 0.2%) in L. digitata. Polysaccharide rich extracts were also attained from L. hyperborea and A. nodosum with variable results when utilizing the optimum UAE conditions for L. digitata.
      268Scopus© Citations 70
  • Publication
    Vitamin D-biofortified beef: A comparison of cholecalciferol with synthetic versus UVB-mushroom-derived ergosterol as feed source
    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p < 0.001) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p < 0.05) and serum 25-OH-D concentration (by 20–36%; p < 0.05), compared to that from Vit D2 and Mushroom D2 supplemented animals. Irrespective of vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, vitamin D3 biofortification of cattle diets is the most efficacious way to enhance total beef vitamin D activity.
    Scopus© Citations 21  292
  • Publication
    Effect of dietary seaweed extracts, galactooligosaccharide and vitamin E supplementation on meat quality parameters in finisher pigs
    Fifty six pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 diets (n = 14) for 35 days pre-slaughter, to assess the effects on bacterial count, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh meat. The treatments were (T1) basal diet (BD), (T2) BD plus seaweed extract (SWE), (T3) BD plus vitamin E (Vit E) and (T4) BD plus galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). At slaughter longissimus dorsi (LD) steaks were excised and stored in modified atmosphere packs for a 14 day period. The supplemented diets improved the TAC of LD steaks until day 11 of storage while SWE samples exhibited the highest TAC throughout. A reduction (P < 0.05) in the level of LPO was observed in LD steaks from SWE and Vit E supplementation. Compared to basal diet, SWE and GOS exhibited lower bacterial count throughout storage. These results demonstrate the potential for the incorporation of SWE into muscle foods via the diet.
    Scopus© Citations 35  438
  • Publication
    Cholecalciferol supplementation in heifer diets increases beef vitamin D concentration and improves beef tenderness
    This study investigated the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) supplementation on beef vitamin D activity, beef tenderness and sensory attributes. Thirty heifers were randomly allocated to one of three finishing dietary treatments [(T1) basal diet + 0 IU vitamin D₃; (T2) basal diet + 2000 IU vitamin D₃; and (T3) basal diet + 4000 IU vitamin D₃] for a 30 day period pre-slaughter. Vitamin D₃ supplementation linearly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25-OH-D3) concentrations (R2 = 0.48), Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (R2 = 0.78) as well as individually vitamin D₃ (R2 = 0.84) and 25-OH-D₃ (R2 = 0.75). The highest vitamin D₃ inclusion diet (T3) had a 42% increase (P < 0.001) in LT vitamin D activity compared to the intermediate diet (T2) and a 145% increase over the lowest level diet (T1). Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased LT shear (P < 0.05) force values after 14 days chilling. Sensory parameters were not affected (P > 0.05). In conclusion, through short-term vitamin D₃ supplementation of cattle diets, beef vitamin D activity can successfully be enhanced
    Scopus© Citations 23  397
  • Publication
    Exploring Ultrasound, Microwave and Ultrasound–Microwave Assisted Extraction Technologies to Increase the Extraction of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidants from Brown Macroalgae
    This study aims to determine the influence of (1) ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), (2) microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and (3) a combination of ultrasound–microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) on the yields of fucose-sulphated polysaccharides (FSPs), total soluble carbohydrates and antioxidants extracted from A. nodosum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the influence of the extraction technologies on the surface of macroalgae while principal component analysis was used to assess the influence of the extraction forces on the yields of compounds. UMAE generated higher yields of compounds compared to UAE and MAE methods separately. The maximum yields of compounds achieved using UMAE were: FSPs (3533.75 ± 55.81 mg fucose/100 g dried macroalgae (dm)), total soluble carbohydrates (10408.72 ± 229.11 mg glucose equivalents/100 g dm) and phenolic compounds (2605.89 ± 192.97 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dm). The antioxidant properties of the extracts showed no clear trend or extreme improvements by using UAE, MAE or UMAE. The macroalgal cells were strongly altered by the application of MAE and UMAE, as revealed by the SEM images. Further research will be needed to understand the combined effect of sono-generated and microwave-induced modifications on macroalgae that will allow us to tailor the forces of extraction to target specific molecules.
      118Scopus© Citations 126
  • Publication
    Identification and characterization of phenolic antioxidant compounds from brown Irish seaweed Himanthalia elongata using LC-DAD–ESI-MS/MS
    This study investigated Himanthalia elongata Irish seaweed as a natural resource for antioxidant compounds. The phenolic compounds from the seaweed were extracted using 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol and the crude methanolic extract was purified with liquid–liquid partition (LLP) followed by column chromatography (CC). Among the purified fractions/sub-fractions, LLP-CC-ethyl acetate sub-fraction exhibited the highest DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging (EC50, 2.4 mg/g) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) scavenging capacity (97.7%). Rapid characterization of the same sub-fraction by LC-DAD–ESI-MS/MS identified a total of 8 phenolic compounds namely hydroxybenzaldehyde (meta/para), phloroglucinol, kaempferol, cirsimaritin, gallic acid 4-O-glucoside, carnosic acid and gallic acid. The purified sub-fractions showed higher antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) than the reference ascorbic acid, suggesting its possible application in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for health promotion. Contributions of the study include identification of compounds (except gallic acid) that have not previously been reported in H. elongata, identifying it as a rich source of phenolic antioxidant compounds. Industrial relevance According to the CE 258/97 regulation, algae are considered as new foods, and could also be considered as functional foods or a source of functional ingredients. This regulation allows the food industry to include seaweeds as raw or its constituents in the formulation of food products. Therefore, much attention nowadays has been focused on harnessing seaweed and its bioactive compounds for potential pharmaceuticals, nutraceutical, cosmetics and biotechnology applications. This study explores the potential of H. elongata Irish seaweed as a natural source of commercially important antioxidant compounds for possible application in food and dietary supplementation products. The crude extract is first purified and then the most active fraction was characterized further. The identified phenolic antioxidant compounds can constitute a new move in the understanding of the health benefits of H. elongata seaweed and the species can be considered as substantial alternate for functional ingredients in food and medicinal preparations.
    Scopus© Citations 110  732
  • Publication
    Effect of seasons on the proximate composition of Laminaria hyperborea from Irish Atlantic coast
    This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in the proximate composition of Laminaria hyperborea collected in 2016 and 2017, off the west coast of Ireland.