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- PublicationCharacterization of the renal cortical transcriptome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in experimental diabetic kidney diseaseIntroduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) reduces albuminuria and the long-term incidence of end-stage renal disease in patients with obesity and diabetes. Preclinical modeling in experimental diabetic kidney disease demonstrates that improvements in glomerular structure likely underpin these findings. Research design and methods In adult male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, we profiled the effect of RYGB on weight and metabolic control as well biochemical, structural and ultrastructural indices of diabetic renal injury. Furthermore, we sequenced the renal cortical transcriptome in these rats and used bioinformatic pathway analyses to characterize the transcriptional alterations governing the renal reparative response to RYGB. Results In parallel with improvements in weight and metabolic control, RYGB reduced albuminuria, glomerulomegaly, podocyte stress and podocyte foot process effacement. Pathway analysis of RYGB-induced transcriptomic changes in the renal cortex highlighted correction of disease-associated alterations in fibrosis, inflammation and biological oxidation pathways. RYGB reversed disease-associated changes in the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily genes that strongly correlated with improvements in structural measures of glomerulopathy. Conclusions Improved glomerular structure in ZDF rats following RYGB is underpinned by pathway level changes, including interruption of the TGF-β-driven early profibrotic programme. Our data provide an important layer of experimental support for clinical evidence demonstrating that RYGB arrests renal damage in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
65Scopus© Citations 7
- PublicationMedications Activating Tubular Fatty Acid Oxidation Enhance the Protective Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in a Rat Model of Early Diabetic Kidney DiseaseBackground: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) improves biochemical and histological parameters of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Targeted adjunct medical therapy may enhance renoprotection following RYGB. Methods: The effects of RYGB and RYGB plus fenofibrate, metformin, ramipril, and rosuvastatin (RYGB-FMRR) on metabolic control and histological and ultrastructural indices of glomerular and proximal tubular injury were compared in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague Dawley (ZDSD) rat model of DKD. Renal cortical transcriptomic (RNA-sequencing) and urinary metabolomic (1H-NMR spectroscopy) responses were profiled and integrated. Transcripts were assigned to kidney cell types through in silico deconvolution in kidney single-nucleus RNA-sequencing and microdissected tubular epithelial cell proteomics datasets. Medication-specific transcriptomic responses following RYGB-FMRR were explored using a network pharmacology approach. Omic correlates of improvements in structural and ultrastructural indices of renal injury were defined using a molecular morphometric approach. Results: RYGB-FMRR was superior to RYGB alone with respect to metabolic control, albuminuria, and histological and ultrastructural indices of glomerular injury. RYGB-FMRR reversed DKD-associated changes in mitochondrial morphology in the proximal tubule to a greater extent than RYGB. Attenuation of transcriptomic pathway level activation of pro-fibrotic responses was greater after RYGB-FMRR than RYGB. Fenofibrate was found to be the principal medication effector of gene expression changes following RYGB-FMRR, which led to the transcriptional induction of PPARα-regulated genes that are predominantly expressed in the proximal tubule and which regulate peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). After omics integration, expression of these FAO transcripts positively correlated with urinary levels of PPARα-regulated nicotinamide metabolites and negatively correlated with urinary tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Changes in FAO transcripts and nicotinamide and TCA cycle metabolites following RYGB-FMRR correlated strongly with improvements in glomerular and proximal tubular injury. Conclusions: Integrative multi-omic analyses point to PPARα-stimulated FAO in the proximal tubule as a dominant effector of treatment response to combined surgical and medical therapy in experimental DKD. Synergism between RYGB and pharmacological stimulation of FAO represents a promising combinatorial approach to the treatment of DKD in the setting of obesity.
90Scopus© Citations 2
- PublicationSpecialized Pro-resolving Lipid Mediators: Modulation of Diabetes-Associated Cardio-, Reno-, and Retino-Vascular ComplicationsDiabetes and its associated chronic complications present a healthcare challenge on a global scale. Despite improvements in the management of chronic complications of the micro-/macro-vasculature, their growing prevalence and incidence highlights the scale of the problem. It is currently estimated that diabetes affects 425 million people globally and it is anticipated that this figure will rise by 2025 to 700 million people. The vascular complications of diabetes including diabetes-associated atherosclerosis and kidney disease present a particular challenge. Diabetes is the leading cause of end stage renal disease, reflecting fibrosis leading to organ failure. Moreover, diabetes associated states of inflammation, neo-vascularization, apoptosis and hypercoagulability contribute to also exacerbate atherosclerosis, from the metabolic syndrome to advanced disease, plaque rupture and coronary thrombosis. Current therapeutic interventions focus on regulating blood glucose, glomerular and peripheral hypertension and can at best slow the progression of diabetes complications. Recently advanced knowledge of the pathogenesis underlying diabetes and associated complications revealed common mechanisms, including the inflammatory response, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. The major role that inflammation plays in many chronic diseases has led to the development of new strategies aiming to promote the restoration of homeostasis through the “resolution of inflammation.” These strategies aim to mimic the spontaneous activities of the ‘specialized pro-resolving mediators’ (SPMs), including endogenous molecules and their synthetic mimetics. This review aims to discuss the effect of SPMs [with particular attention to lipoxins (LXs) and resolvins (Rvs)] on inflammatory responses in a series of experimental models, as well as evidence from human studies, in the context of cardio- and reno-vascular diabetic complications, with a brief mention to diabetic retinopathy (DR). These data collectively support the hypothesis that endogenously generated SPMs or synthetic mimetics of their activities may represent lead molecules in a new discipline, namely the ‘resolution pharmacology,’ offering hope for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat, specifically, diabetes-associated atherosclerosis, nephropathy and retinopathy.
396Scopus© Citations 19