Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
  • Publication
    Holographic grating evolution in photopolymer materials
    A generalized non-local polymerization driven diffusion (NPDD) model is presented, including the effects of absorption and inhibition. Experimentally obtained growth curves are fit using a four-harmonic numerical fitting algorithm and key material parameters are extracted.
  • Publication
    The approximate model for holographic grating formation in photopolymers
    (Optical Society of America, 2006-10-10) ; ; ;
    Nonlocal Polymerisation Driven Diffusion model describes grating formation in photopolymer materials and gives valuable insight into the processes taking place during formation. For weak exposures, NPDD reduces to a simple approximate model describing polymer concentration
  • Publication
    Material kinetics during fabrication of holographic gratings in acrylamide-based photopolymer
    We describe holographic grating formation in Acrylamide-based photopolymer material using the NonLocal Diffusion Driven model & discuss radical suppression leading to an inhibition period before grating growth. Diffusion effects of monomer & polymer are discussed.
  • Publication
    Generalized model of photopolymer behavior for use in optimized holographic data storage scheduling algorithms
    A generalized model of photo-polymerization in free radical chainforming polymers has been developed. Applying this model to data storage, optimized scheduling algorithms are developed for the multiplexing of multiple data pages of uniform diffraction efficiency.
  • Publication
    Non-local polymerization driven diffusion based model : general dependence of the polymerization rate to the exposure intensity
    The nonlocal diffusion model proposed by Sheridan and coworkers has provided a useful interpretation of the nature of grating formation inside photopolymer materials. This model accounts for some important experimental facts, such as the cut-off of diffraction efficiency for high spatial frequencies. In this article we examine the predictions of the model in the case of a general dependence of the polymerisation rate with respect to the intensity pattern. The effects of this dependence on the different harmonic components of the polymerisation concentration will be investigated. The influence of the visibility on the different harmonic components will also be studied. These effects are compared to the effects of varying RD and σD.
      246Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Modeling the photochemical effects present during holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials
    The development of a theoretical model of the processes present during the formation of a holographic grating in photopolymer materials is crucial in enabling further development of holographic applications. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the photochemical and photophysical processes involved and to isolate their effects, enabling each to be modeled accurately. While photopolymer materials are practical materials for use as holographic recording media, understanding the recording mechanisms will allow their limitations for certain processes to be overcome. In this paper we report generalizations of the nonlocal polymer driven diffusion (NPDD) model to include the effects of photosensitive dye absorption and the inhibition effects.
      353Scopus© Citations 59
  • Publication
    Holographic photopolymer materials : nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion under nonideal kinetic conditions
    The kinetics of photosensitive polymer holographic recording materials are examined assuming a material that exhibits nonideal kinetic behavior. Previously, a linear relationship between monomer concentration and polymerization was assumed when deriving the nonlocal polymer-driven diffusion (NPDD) model. This is consistent with ideal kinetic conditions in which chain termination is governed by a bimolecular process. However, these models have been reported to disagree with experimental results. In a limiting case of nonideal kinetics it is assumed that primary termination is dominant. In this case the NPDD model must be modified to incorporate a quadratic relationship between the monomer concentration and the polymerization rate. By use of a multiharmonic expansion method of solution the predictions of ideal (bimolecular or linear) and nonideal (primary or quadratic) kinetic models are compared. By using these models we carried out numerical fits to experimental growth curves of gratings recorded in an acrylamide-based cross-linked photopolymer system. Superior fits are achieved by use of the primary termination model. Physical parameters such as the diffusion constant are extracted and compared with results previously reported in the literature.
      305Scopus© Citations 102
  • Publication
    3 Dimensional analysis of holographic photopolymers based memories
    One of the most interesting applications of photopolymers is as holographic recording materials for holographic memories. One of the basic requirements for this application is that the recording material thickness must be 500 µm or thicker. In recent years many 2-dimensional models have been proposed for the analysis of photopolymers. Good agreement between theoretical simulations and experimental results has been obtained for layers thinner than 200 µm. The attenuation of the light inside the material by Beer’s law results in an attenuation of the index profile inside the material and in some cases the effective optical thickness of the material is lower than the physical thickness. This is an important and fundamental limitation in achieving high capacity holographic memories using photopolymers and cannot be analyzed using 2-D diffusion models. In this paper a model is proposed to describe the behavior of the photopolymers in 3-D. This model is applied to simulate the formation of profiles in depth for different photopolymer viscosities and different intensity attenuations inside the material.
      340Scopus© Citations 50
  • Publication
    Holographic data storage : optimized scheduling using the nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion model
    (Optical Society of America, 2004-08-01) ; ;
    The choice of an exposure schedule that maximizes the uniformity and capacity of a holographic recording medium is of critical importance in ensuring the optimum performance of any potential holographic data storage scheme. We propose a methodology to identify an optimum exposure schedule for photopolymer materials governed by the nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion model. Using this model, the relationship between the material properties (nonlocality and nonlinearity), the recording conditions and the schedule are clarified. In this way, we provide a first-order comparison of the behavior of particular classes of photopolymer materials for use as holographic storage media. We demonstrate, using the nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion model, that the exposure schedule is independent of the number of gratings to be recorded and that the optimum schedule may necessitate leaving unpolymerized monomer at the end of the recording process.
      280Scopus© Citations 46
  • Publication
    Improvement of the spatial frequency response of photopolymer materials by modifying polymer chain length
    One of the key predictions of the nonlocal photopolymerization driven diffusion (NPDD) model is that a reduction in the extent of the nonlocal effects within a material will improve the high spatial frequency response. The NPDD model is generalized to more accurately model material absorbtivity. By eliminating the necessity for the steady-state approximation to describe the rate of change of monomer radical concentration, a more accurate physical representation of the initial transient behavior, at the start of grating growth, is achieved, which includes the effects of oxygen-based inhibition. The spatial frequency response of an acrylamide/polyvinylalcohol-based photopolymer is then improved through the addition of a chain transfer agent (CTA), sodium formate. Using the NPDD model demonstrates that the CTA has the effect of decreasing the average length of the polyacrylamide (PA) chains formed, thus reducing the nonlocal response parameter, σ. Further independent confirmation of the resulting reduction in the PA average molecular weight is provided using a diffusion-based holographic technique
      414Scopus© Citations 79