Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Subjective and objective taste and smell changes in cancer
    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in cancer patients and an important predictor of morbidity, mortality, treatment response and toxicity. Taste and smell changes (TSCs) are common and may contribute to malnutrition. Research has previously focused on patients receiving chemotherapy (CT) or head and neck radiotherapy (RT). However, TSCs may occur pre-treatment, with other treatment modalities, and in cancer survivors. This review evaluates objective and subjective assessment of taste and smell, discusses the prevalence of TSCs in cancer, and reviews the clinical sequelae of TSCs in cancer patients.
      335Scopus© Citations 79
  • Publication
    Tackling the increasing problem of malnutrition in older persons: The Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub
    In order to tackle the increasing problem of malnutrition (i.e. protein-energy malnutrition) in the older population, the Joint Action Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub has been recently launched as part of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (HDHL). This paper introduces this new European initiative and describes its objectives and design. The MaNuEL Consortium consists of 22 research groups from seven countries (Austria, France, Germany, Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands and New Zealand). The Consortium aims to extend scientific knowledge; strengthen evidence-based practice in the management of malnutrition in older persons; build a sustainable, transnational, competent network of malnutrition experts; and harmonise research and clinical practice. MaNuEL is built on five interconnected work packages that focus on 1) defining treatable malnutrition; 2) screening of malnutrition in different settings; 3) determinants of malnutrition; 4) prevention and treatment of malnutrition; and 5) policies and education regarding malnutrition screening and treatment in older persons across Europe. Systematic literature reviews will be performed to assess current research on malnutrition and identify potential knowledge gaps. Secondary data analyses of nutritional intervention trials and observational studies will also be conducted. Using web-based questionnaires, MaNuEL will provide insight into current clinical practice, policies, and health professionals’ education on malnutrition and will make recommendations for improvement. MaNuEL is being advised by a stakeholder board of five experts in geriatric nutrition who represent relevant European professional societies.
      496Scopus© Citations 35
  • Publication
    Subjective taste and smell changes in treatment-naïve people with solid tumours
    Purpose: Taste and smell changes (TSCs) have been studied in cancer post-chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy (RT), and in head and neck (H&N) tumours. They may present as part of a symptom cluster with anorexia, early satiety and weight loss, which can negatively impact nutritional status. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, severity and characteristics of TSCs and their relationship with co-occurring symptoms in non-H&N solid tumours before CT or RT. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted. Forty consecutive pre-treatment cancer patients who attended oncology outpatients over six weeks were recruited. Data on TSCs, symptoms and nutritional status were obtained using the ‘Taste and Smell Survey’ and the ‘abridged Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment’ (abPG-SGA). Weight and height were measured, and BMI calculated. SPSS® was used for statistical analysis. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Most patients were newly diagnosed (70%; n=28). Nineteen (48%) reported TSCs; 9 noted stronger sweet taste and 7 stronger salt taste. Of these, 4 reported stronger and 4 weaker odour sensation. Those deemed at nutritional risk by the abPG-SGA tended to have more TSCs. TSCs were significantly associated with dry mouth (P<0.01), early satiety (P<0.05) and fatigue (P<0.05). Conclusions: TSCs preceded CT or RT in almost half of treatment-naive patients with solid tumours, notably stronger sweet and salt tastes. Most of those at nutritional risk reported TSCs. TSCs were significantly associated with other symptoms. Future research and clinical guidelines with a common terminology for assessment, diagnosis and management of cancer TSCs are needed.
      343
  • Publication
    Low Energy Availability in Athletes: A Review of Prevalence, Dietary Patterns, Physiological Health, and Sports Performance
    In a high-performance sports environment, athletes can present with low energy availability (LEA) for a variety of reasons, ranging from not consuming enough food for their specific energy requirements to disordered eating behaviors. Both male and female high-performance athletes are at risk of LEA. Longstanding LEA can cause unfavorable physiological and psychological outcomes which have the potential to impair an athlete’s health and sports performance. This narrative review summarizes the prevalence of LEA and its associations with athlete health and sports performance. It is evident in the published scientific literature that the methods used to determine LEA and its associated health outcomes vary. This contributes to poor recognition of the condition and its sequelae. This review also identifies interventions designed to improve health outcomes in athletes with LEA and indicates areas which warrant further investigation. While return-to-play guidelines have been developed for healthcare professionals to manage LEA in athletes, behavioral interventions to prevent the condition and manage its associated negative health and performance outcomes are required.
      1267Scopus© Citations 112